Right colonic perforation in an Asian population: predictors of morbidity and mortality.
ABSTRACT Perforation of the colon is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pathologies arising from the right colon differ greatly between Asians and the Western population. The aims of our study were to evaluate the implications of perforated right colon in an Asian population and to identify factors that could predict the perioperative outcome.
A retrospective review of all patients who underwent operative intervention for peritonitis from right colonic perforation from July 2003 to April 2008 was performed. Patients were identified from the hospital's diagnostic index and operating records. The severity of abdominal sepsis for all patients was graded using the Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI). All the complications were graded according to the classification proposed by Clavian and colleagues.
Fifty-one patients with a median age of 60 years (range, 22-93 years) formed the study group. Diverticulitis (47.1%) and malignancy (37.3%) accounted for the majority of the pathologies. Right hemicolectomy without diverting stoma (n = 34, 66.7%) was performed most commonly. Of our patients, 74.5% had perioperative morbidity with 19 (37.3%) patients having grade III or worse complications. In our series, five (9.8%) patients died. On univariate analysis, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score >or=3, >or=2 premorbid conditions, raised MPI, raised creatinine, and stoma creation were related to more severe complications (grade III/IV). The following variables were correlated with in-hospital mortality: ASA score >or=3, raised MPI, hematocrit <33%, raised creatinine, malignant perforation, and stoma creation. On multivariate analysis, a higher ASA score >or=3 was predictive of significant morbidity, while both malignant perforation and stoma creation were associated with mortality.
Diverticulitis is the commonest cause of right colonic perforation in Asians. Patients with higher ASA score and malignant perforation are at risk of higher morbidity and mortality. Resection with primary anastomosis is safe and patients who require stomas are more likely to do worse.