A Novel Polymorphism rs1329149 of CYP2E1 and a Known Polymorphism rs671 of ALDH2 of Alcohol Metabolizing Enzymes Are Associated with Colorectal Cancer in a Southwestern Chinese Population

Department of Hygienic Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 09/2009; 18(9):2522-7. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0398
Source: PubMed


To screen for tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) in the major alcohol metabolizing enzymes: ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1, and to evaluate the association between these tagSNPs and colorectal cancer (CRC) in a southwestern Chinese population.
A hospital-based case-control study of 440 CRC patients and 800 cancer-free controls was conducted. Personal information was collected by a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The tagSNPs were screened in the HapMap with Haploview by setting the minor allele frequency at 0.03 with the highest score of r(2) form each block. Genotypes were identified by using the SNPLex System. Both crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the risk of each SNP.
Sixteen tagSNPs were selected, and 13 were successfully genotyped. A novel CYP2E1 locus rs1329149 and a known ALDH2 locus rs671 were found to be significantly associated with CRC risk. The adjusted OR was 1.86 (95% CI, 1.12-3.09) for the rs671 A/A genotype and 4.04 for the rs1329149 T/T genotype (95% CI, 2.44-6.70), compared with their common homozygous genotypes. Interaction was found between alcohol consumption and gene polymorphisms on CRC, the adjusted OR was 7.17 (95% CI, 2.01-25.53) for drinking habits combined with rs671 A/A or rs1329149 T/T genotype.
The results of this study suggest that rs671 A/A and the first reported locus rs1329149 T/T genotypes increase the susceptibility to CRC, and gene-environmental interaction between the two loci and alcohol use existed for CRC in Southwestern Chinese. Larger studies are warranted to verify our findings.

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Available from: Huan Yang, Mar 28, 2014
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    • "Selected Asian populations have higher frequencies of ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 mutant alleles (up to 40%) than Caucasians (<5%) [34]. ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms have been related to the risk of selected cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract, in alcohol drinkers [35] [36] [37] of Asian descendents, while studies conducted in European populations found no significant association with ADH1B*1, whereas practically all Europeans were homozygous for ALDH2*1 [38]. However, since we identified only four studies from Asia [6] [13] [16] [17], this finding needs further confirmation. "
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    ABSTRACT: The association between alcohol and leukemia risk has been addressed in several studies in the past two decades, but results have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the dose–risk relation. Through the literature search up to August 2013, we identified 18 studies, 10 case-control and 8 cohorts, carried out in a total of 7142 leukemia cases. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we performed a dose–risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. Stratified analyses were carried out on leukemia subtypes and groups, in order to identify possible etiologic differences. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risks (RRs) for all leukemia were 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85–1.03], 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80–1.01) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81–1.02) for any, light (≤1 drink/day) and moderate to heavy (>1 drink/day) alcohol drinking, respectively. The summary RRs for any alcohol drinking were 1.47 (95% CI, 0.47–4.62) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0.94 (95% CI 0.77–1.15) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 1.02 (95% CI, 0.86–1.21) for acute myeloid leukemia and 0.93 (95% CI 0.75–1.14) for chronic myeloid leukemia. The subgroup analysis on geographical area for all leukemia combined showed RRs of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76–0.93), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83–1.01) and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02–1.70) for studies conducted in America, Europe and Asia, respectively. We did not find an increased risk of leukemia among alcohol drinkers. If any, a modest favorable effect emerged for light alcohol drinking, with a model-based risk reduction of approximately 10% in regular drinkers.
    Cancer Epidemiology 06/2014; 38(4):339-345. DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2014.06.001 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Chiang's study [15] found that the allele frequency of ALDH2 A was significantly higher in colorectal cancer cases; however, Miyasaka's study[16] found that the A/A genotype of ALDH2 might not be a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Yang's study [17] found that the ALDH2 A/A genotype could increase susceptibility to CRC (adjusted OR = 1.86 (95% CI, 1.12–3.09)); however, Yin's study [19] discovered that the ALDH2A/A genotype was related to a statistically significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI  =  0.33–0.93). "
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    ABSTRACT: A number of studies have explored the association of the aldehyde dehydrogenases-2 (ALDH2) Glu487Lys polymorphism and risk of colorectal cancer; however, the results are inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to clarify this issue using all the available evidence. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching PubMed. Eleven case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing 2909 cases and 4903 controls. The pooled results based on all included studies showed a decreased colorectal cancer risk in the analysis of the GA genotype vs. the GG genotype (OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.68-0.98, p = 0.03) and in the dominant genetic model analysis (OR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.67-0.98, p = 0.03). However, there was no statistical difference in the AA vs. GG analysis (OR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.52-1.06,p = 0.11) and the recessive genetic model analysis (OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.69-1.07, p = 0.17). Cumulative meta-analysis based on publication time confirmed these findings. Patients with colorectal cancer had a higher frequency of the GG genotype (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02-1.20, p = 0.02) and a lower frequency of the GA genotype (OR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.81-0.98, p = 0.02) comparing with control population. Our results suggested that the ALDH2 Glu487Lys polymorphism may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88656. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088656 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous studies have reported associations between polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes and CRC risk, mainly in oriental population, but results are inconclusive since associations reported are not always replicated by other studies [36], [37], [41], [42], [43], [44], [45]. The most frequently reported loci are ADH1B Arg47His (rs1229984), because the activity of ADH1B decreased by 40-fold in ADH1B His/His individuals, and ALDH2 Glu487Lys (rs671), which affects the Km of this enzyme for alcohol with loss of the enzyme activity in individuals with the ALDH2 Lys/Lys phenotype. "
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80158. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080158 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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