Article

Alcohol Consumption and Genetic Variation in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 09/2009; 18(9):2453-9. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0159
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been hypothesized that effects of alcohol consumption on one-carbon metabolism may explain, in part, the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) genes express key enzymes in this pathway. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) and MTR (rs1805087) with breast cancer risk and their interaction with alcohol consumption in a case-control study--the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer study. Cases (n = 1,063) were women with primary, incident breast cancer and controls (n = 1,890) were frequency matched to cases on age and race. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found no association of MTHFR or MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer. In the original case-control study, there was a nonsignificant increased odds of breast cancer among women with higher lifetime drinking. In the current study, there was no evidence of an interaction of genotype and alcohol in premenopausal women. However, among postmenopausal women, there was an increase in breast cancer risk for women who were homozygote TT for MTHFR C677T and had high lifetime alcohol intake (>or=1,161.84 oz; OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.13-3.28) and for those who had a high number of drinks per drinking day (>1.91 drinks/day; OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.03-3.28) compared with nondrinkers who were homozygote CC. Our findings indicate that among postmenopausal women, increased breast cancer risk with alcohol consumption may be as a result of effects on one-carbon metabolism.

Full-text

Available from: Catalin Marian, May 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
172 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible causative role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for breast cancer. However, such conclusions should be interpreted with considerable caution for several reasons. While epidemiological studies can help identify the roots of health problems and disease incidence in a community, they are by necessity associative and cannot determine cause and effect relationships. In addition, all these studies rely on self-reporting to determine the amount and type of alcoholic beverage consumed, which introduces recall bias. This is documented in a recent study which stated that the apparent increased risk of cancer among light-moderate drinkers may be "substantially due to underreporting of intake." Another meta-analysis about alcohol and breast cancer declared "the modest size of the association and variation in results across studies leave the causal role of alcohol in question." Furthermore, breast cancer develops over decades; thus, correlations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer cannot be determined in epidemiological studies with windows of alcohol exposure that captures current or recent alcohol intake, after clinical diagnosis.Numerous risk factors are involved in breast carcinogenesis; some are genetic and beyond the control of a woman; others are influenced by lifestyle factors. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous and polygenic disease which is further influenced by epigenetic mechanisms that affect the transciptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and ultimately breast cancer evolution. Environmental factors add another layer of complexity by their interactions with the susceptibility genes for breast cancer and metabolic diseases. The current state-of-knowledge about alcohol and breast cancer association is ambiguous and confusing to both a woman and her physician. Confronting the huge global breast cancer issue should be addressed by sound science.It is advised that women with or without a high risk for breast cancer should avoid overconsumption of alcohol and should consult with their physician about risk factors involved in breast cancer. Since studies associating moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer are contradictory, a woman and her physician should weigh the risks and benefits of moderate alcohol consumption.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2015; 815:7-39. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-09614-8_2 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is essential for DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, and its gene polymorphisms have been implicated as risk factors for birth defects, neurological disorders, and different types of cancers. Several studies have investigated the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and breast cancer (BC) risk, but the results were inconclusive. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR A1298C polymorphism, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier and Springer Link databases were searched for case-control studies relating the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk and estimated summary odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Up to January 2014, 33 case-control studies involving 15,919 BC patients and 19,700 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. The results showed that the A1298C polymorphism was not associated with BC risk in all the five genetic models (C vs. A allele (allele contrast): OR = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.05; AC versus AA (heterozygote/codominant): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.04; CC versus AA (homozygote): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; CC + AC versus AA (dominant model): OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.90-1.05; and CC versus AC + AA (recessive model): OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91-1.07). The present meta-analysis did not support any association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and BC risk.
    11/2014; 4(6):841-51. DOI:10.4103/2141-9248.144873
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) acts at an important metabolic point in the regulation of cellular methylation reaction. It assists in the conversion of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. The latter aids in remethylation of homocysteine to de novo methionine that is required for DNA synthesis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphism on the risk of breast cancer in the Indian sub-continent. We genotyped 677 C>T locus in 1096 individuals that were classified into cases (N=588) and controls (N=508). Genotype data were analyzed using chi-square test. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes between cases and controls in north Indian (P = 0.932), south Indian (P = 0.865), and pooled data (P = 0.680). To develop a consensus regarding the impact of 677C>T polymorphism on breast cancer risk, we also conducted a meta-analysis on 28031 cases and 31880 controls that were pooled from sixty one studies. The overall summary estimate upon meta-analysis suggested no significant correlation between the 677C>T substitution and breast cancer in the dominant model (Fixed effect model: OR = 0.97, P=0.072, Random effects model: OR = 0.96, P = 0.084) or the recessive model (Fixed effect model: OR = 1.05, P = 0.089; Random effects model: OR= 1.08, P= 0.067). 677 C>T substitution does not affect breast cancer risk in the Indo-European and Dravidian populations of India. Analysis on pooled data further ruled out association between the 677 C>T polymorphism and breast cancer. Therefore, 677 C>T substitution does not appear to influence the risk of breast cancer.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120654 · 3.53 Impact Factor