Vitamin D receptor and calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations.
ABSTRACT Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium may play a protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the calcium sensing receptor (CASR). However, current epidemiologic evidence from European populations for a role of these genes in CRC risk is scarce. In addition, it is not clear whether these genes may modulate CRC risk independently or by interaction with blood vitamin D concentration and level of dietary calcium intake. A case-control study was conducted nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. CRC cases (1,248) were identified and matched to 1,248 control subjects. Genotyping for the VDR (BsmI: rs1544410; Fok1: rs2228570) and CASR (rs1801725) genes was done by Taqman, and serum vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR). Compared with the wild-type bb, the BB genotype of the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of CRC [RR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98). The association was observed for colon cancer (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95) but not rectal cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.49). The Fok1 and CASR genotypes were not associated with CRC risk in this study. No interactions were noted for any of the polymorphisms with serum 25OHD concentration or level of dietary calcium. These results confirm a role for the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in CRC risk, independent of serum 25OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake.
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ABSTRACT: A number of studies have evaluated the role of gene-diet interaction in the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Historically, these studies focused on established dietary risk factors and genes involved in their metabolism. However, results from these candidate gene studies were inconsistent, possibly due to multiple testing and publication bias. In recent years, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of CRC susceptibility loci, and subsequent meta-analyses have observed limited evidence that diet may modify the risk associated with these susceptibility loci. Statistical techniques have been recently developed to evaluate the presence of interaction across the entire genome; results from these genome-wide studies have demonstrated limited evidence of interaction and have failed to replicate results from candidate gene studies and those using established susceptibility loci. However, larger sample sizes are likely needed to elucidate modest or weak interaction in genome-wide studies of gene-diet interaction.12/2014; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s13668-014-0114-2
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ABSTRACT: An unfavorable trend of increasing rates of colorectal cancer has been observed across modern societies. In general, dietary factors are understood to be responsible for up to 70% of the disease's incidence, though there are still many inconsistencies regarding the impact of specific dietary items. Among the dietary minerals, calcium intake may play a crucial role in the prevention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of intake of higher levels of dietary calcium on the risk of developing of colorectal cancer, and to evaluate dose dependent effect and to investigate possible effect modification. A hospital based case--control study of 1556 patients (703 histologically confirmed colon and rectal incident cases and 874 hospital-based controls) was performed between 2000--2012 in Krakow, Poland. The 148-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess dietary habits and level of nutrients intake was used. Data regarding possible covariates was also collected. After adjustment for age, gender, education, consumption of fruits, raw and cooked vegetables, fish, and alcohol, as well as for intake of fiber, vitamin C, dietary iron, lifetime recreational physical activity, BMI, smoking status, and taking mineral supplements, an increase in the consumption of calcium was associated with the decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89-0.98 for every 100 mg Ca/day increase). Subjects consumed >1000 mg/day showed 46% decrease of colon cancer risk (OR = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.35-0.83). The effect of dietary calcium was modified by dietary fiber (p for interaction =0.015). Finally, consistent decrease of colon cancer risk was observed across increasing levels of dietary calcium and fiber intake. These relationships were not proved for rectal cancer. The study confirmed the effect of high doses of dietary calcium against the risk of colon cancer development. This relationship was observed across different levels of dietary fiber, and the beneficial effect of dietary calcium depended on the level of dietary fiber suggesting modification effect of calcium and fiber. Further efforts are needed to confirm this association, and also across higher levels of dietary fiber intake.Nutrition Journal 10/2013; 12(1):134. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-134 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Previous studies have investigated the association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility, but the results were conflicting. The aim of this study is to quantitatively summarize the relationship between this polymorphism and CRC risk. Materials and Methods: Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Chinese Biomedicine databases for studies published before November 2013. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for VDR BsmI polymorphism and CRC were calculated in a fixed- effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and a random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate. Results: This meta-analysis included 14 case-control studies, which included 10,822 CRC cases and 11,779 controls. Overall, the variant genotype (BB) of the BsmI was associated with a lower CRC risk when compared with the wild-type bb homozygote (OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.49-0.88). Similarly, a decreased CRC risk was also found in the dominant and recessive models. When stratifying for ethnicity, source of controls, and study sample size, associations were observed among Caucasians, population-based studies and studies with large study sample size (>1000 subjects). Limiting the analysis to the studies within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results were persistent and robust. No publication bias was found in the present study. Conclusions: This updated meta-analysis suggests that the VDR BsmI polymorphism may be associated with a moderate protective effect against CRC.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 06/2014; 15(12):4801-7. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4801 · 1.50 Impact Factor