Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in penile carcinoma

Unit of Infections and Cancer (UNIC), Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Institut Català d' Oncologia, IDIBELL, L' Hospitalet de Ll, Barcelona, Spain.
Journal of clinical pathology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 09/2009; 62(10):870-8. DOI: 10.1136/jcp.2008.063149
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Penile carcinoma is an uncommon and potentially mutilating disease with a heterogeneous aetiology. Several risk factors have been established for its development. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection seems to play an important role in the development of a subset of these carcinomas and its presence is thought to be related to the histological type. HPV prevalence in penile tumours is reported to be associated to a variety of morphological changes. Its determination will provide a better estimate for HPV related cancer burden and its preventable fraction.
A systematic and comprehensive literature review of the major penile cancer studies published from 1986 until June 2008 evaluating the HPV prevalence among the different histological types was carried out.
31 studies including 1466 penile carcinomas were reviewed. Global HPV prevalence was 46.9%. Relative contribution was: HPV-16 (60.23%), HPV-18 (13.35%), HPV-6/11 (8.13%), HPV-31 (1.16%), HPV-45 (1.16%), HPV-33 (0.97%), HPV-52 (0.58%), other types (2.47%). Assessment of multiple infections contribution is limited due to study design. Basaloid and warty squamous cell carcinomas were the most frequent HPV-related histological types, but keratinising and non-keratinising subtypes also showed prevalence rates of around 50%.
About half of the penile tumours were associated with HPV 16-18 with little presence of other genotypes. Research on the mechanisms behind penile carcinogenesis is warranted. Available HPV vaccines are likely to be effective in penile tumours.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Up to 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (pSCC) develop in the context of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Most of these tumours have been reported to show basaloid differentiation and overexpression of tumour suppressor protein p16INK4a. Whether HPV-triggered carcinogenesis in pSCC has an impact on tumour aggressiveness, however, is still subject to research. Methods In tissue specimens from 58 patients with surgically treated pSCC between 1995 and 2012, we performed p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and DNA extraction followed by HPV subtyping using a PCR-based approach. The results were correlated with histopathological and clinical parameters. Results 90.4% of tumours were of conventional (keratinizing) subtype. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 29.3%, and a variety of p16INK4a staining patterns was observed in 58.6% of samples regardless of histologic subtype. Sensitivity of basaloid subtype to predict HR-HPV positivity was poor (11.8%). In contrast, sensitivity and specificity of p16INK4a staining to predict presence of HR-HPV DNA was 100% and 57%, respectively. By focussing on those samples with intense nuclear staining pattern for p16INK4a, specificity could be improved to 83%. Both expression of p16INK4a and presence of HR-HPV DNA, but not histologic grade, were inversely associated with pSCC tumour invasion (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, and p = 0.71). However, none of these correlated with nodal involvement or distant metastasis. In contrast to pathological tumour stage, the HR-HPV status, histologic grade, and p16INK4a positivity failed to predict cancer-specific survival. Conclusions Our results confirm intense nuclear positivity for p16INK4a, rather than histologic subtype, as a good predictor for presence of HR-HPV DNA in pSCC. HR-HPV / p16INK4a positivity, independent of histological tumour grade, indicates a less aggressive local behaviour; however, its value as an independent prognostic indicator remains to be determined. Since local invasion can be judged without p16INK4a/HPV-detection on microscopic evaluation, our study argues against routine testing in the setting of pSCC.
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    ABSTRACT: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be associated with a number of conditions including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal neoplasias and cancers, oropharynx cancers and genitals warts (GW). Two prophylactic vaccines are currently available: a bivalent vaccine designed to prevent HPV type 16 and 18 infection and a quadrivalent vaccine targeting HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. In France, HPV vaccination is recommended in 11-14 year-old girls with a catch-up for girls aged 15-19. The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of an HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 nonavalent vaccine on anogenital and oropharyngeal HPV-related diseases in France. HPV genotype distributions from 6 multicentric retrospective studies (EDiTH I to VI) were analyzed including 516 cases of invasive cervical cancers (ICC), 493 high-grade cervical neoplasias (CIN2/3), 397 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 423 GW, 366 anal cancer and 314 oropharyngeal carcinomas. Low and high estimates of HPV vaccine impact were calculated as follows: low estimate: prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 genotypes alone or in association but excluding presence of another HPV type; high estimate: prevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 genotypes alone or in association, possibly in presence of another HPV type. Estimates of potential impact varied from 85% (low estimate) to 92% (high estimate) for ICC, 77% to 90% for CIN2/3, 26% to 56% for LSIL, 69% to 90% for GW, 81% to 93% for anal cancer, and 41% to 44% for oropharyngeal carcinomas. Compared to the quadrivalent vaccine, the proportion of additional cases potentially prevented by the nonavalent vaccine was 9.9%-15.3% for ICC, 24.7%-33.3% for CIN2/3, 12.3%-22.7% for LSIL, 2.1%-5.4% for GW, 8.5%-10.4% for anal cancer, and 0.0%-1.6% for oropharyngeal carcinoma. The nonavalent HPV vaccine showed significant increased potential impact compared to the HPV 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent vaccine for ICC, CIN2/3 and LSIL. Considering a 100% vaccine efficacy and high vaccine coverage, about 90% of ICC, CIN2/3, GW or anal cancer cases could be prevented by a nonavalent HPV vaccine in France.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the consequences of a national immunization program with HPV vaccine for both boys and girls in Denmark, including the prophylactic effects on all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-associated diseases in male and female. The study focussed on the quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18, and the vaccine's protection against genital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, anogenital cancer (anal, penile, vaginal and vulvar cancer) and head and neck cancer (oral cavity, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer) were included in the analyses. In general, the analysis was performed in two phases. First, an agent-based transmission model that described the HPV transmission without and with HPV vaccination was applied. Second, an analysis of the incremental costs and effects was performed. The model did not include naturally-acquired immunity to HPV in the simulations. In the base case result (i.e. vaccination of girls only, 85% vaccination rate, private market price at € 123 per dose ex. VAT) an ICER of 3583 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated when all HPV-related diseases are taken into account. Vaccination of girls & boys vs. vaccination of girls only an ICER of 28,031 €/QALY (2-dose regime) and 41,636 €/QALY (3-dose regime) is estimated. Extension of the current HPV programme in Denmark to include boys and girls is a cost effective preventive intervention that would lead to a faster prevention of cancers, cancer precursors and genital warts in men and women.
    Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 12/2015; 13(1):4. DOI:10.1186/s12962-015-0029-9 · 0.87 Impact Factor