Role of the nanos homolog during sea urchin development.
ABSTRACT The nanos genes play important roles in the development of primordial germ cells in animal species. In the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, small micromere descendants specifically express HpNanos mRNA and this expression continues in the left coelomic pouch, which produces the major component of the adult rudiment. In this study, we showed that morpholino knockdown of HpNanos resulted in a delay of primary mesenchyme cell ingression and a decrease in the number of cells comprising the left coelomic pouch. Knockdown analysis in chimeras and whole embryos revealed the disappearance of small micromere descendants from the archenteron tip. Furthermore, the expression of HpNanos mRNA was induced in other cell lineages in the HpNanos-knockdown and micromere-deleted embryos. Taken together, our results suggest that HpNanos is involved in the inductive interaction of small micromere descendants with other cell lineages, and that HpNanos is required for the survival of small micromere descendants.
- SourceAvailable from: Nathalie Oulhen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells during embryogenesis. Three nanos homologs are present in the genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), and each nanos mRNA accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage. We found that a highly conserved element in the 3' UTR of nanos2 is sufficient for reporter expression selectively in the sMic lineage: microinjection into a Sp fertilized egg of an RNA that contains the GFP open reading frame followed by Sp nanos2 3'UTR leads to selective reporter enrichment in the small micromeres in blastulae. The same result was seen with nanos2 from the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (Hp). In both species, the 5'UTR alone is not sufficient for the sMic localization but it always increased the sMic reporter enrichment when present with the 3'UTR. We defined an element conserved between Hp and Sp in the nanos2 3'UTR which is necessary and sufficient for protein enrichment in the sMic, and refer to it as GNARLE (Global Nanos Associated RNA Lability Element). We also found that the nanos2 3'UTR is essential for the selective RNA retention in the small micromeres; GNARLE is required but not sufficient for this process. These results show that a combination of selective RNA retention and translational control mechanisms instills nanos accumulation uniquely in the sMic lineage.Developmental Biology 01/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Piwi proteins are essential for germ line development, stem cell maintenance, and more recently found to function in epigenetic and somatic gene regulation. In the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, two Piwi proteins, Seawi and Piwi-like1, have been identified, yet their functional contributions have not been reported. Result: Here we found that Seawi protein was localized uniformly in the early embryo and then became enriched in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) (the small micromere lineage) from blastula stage and thereafter. Morpholino knockdown of Sp-seawi diminished PGC-specific localization of Seawi proteins, and altered expression of other germ line markers such as Vasa and Gustavus, but had no effect on Nanos. Further, Seawi knockdown transiently resulted in Vasa positive cell proliferation in the right coelomic pouch that appear to be derived from the small micromere lineage, yet they quickly disappeared with an indication of apoptosis by larval stage. Severe Seawi knockdown resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells in the entire gut area. Piwi proteins appear to regulate PGC proliferation perhaps through control of Vasa accumulation. In this organism, Piwi is likely regulating mRNAs, not just transposons, and is potentially functioning both inside and outside of the germ line during embryogenesis. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 11/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio, binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos expression appears to be regulated at every step of transcription, and post-transcriptional activity, making this gene product exciting, every which way. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.genesis 12/2013; · 2.58 Impact Factor