Article

Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 09/2009; 120(11):1011-20. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Rachel K Johnson, Aug 29, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
149 Views
 · 
16 Downloads
  • Source
    • "Sucrose was chosen as the reinforcer to both extend the results of these previous studies with cocaine and gain a better understanding of the neurobiology of food-directed relapse. Given the severity of the obesity epidemic (CDC 2014; WHO 2015), its associated negative health outcomes (Ogden et al. 2007), and also other negative outcomes related to excess food consumption (e.g., sugar; Johnson et al. 2009), further evaluation of factors that maintain feeding behaviors is warranted. In addition, we included both acute (overnight) and chronic (1 month) EE conditions to examine how the extent of EE and/or length of abstinence from self-administration affects neuronal activity. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose seeking by rats with a history of sucrose self-administration. The present experiment examined whether acute or chronic EE also reduces brain Fos levels, a protein marker indicative of neuronal activation. Fos levels were also examined after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence to examine whether Fos levels vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. Fos expression was examined in 18 regions and was identified in brain slices using immunohistochemistry. Fos levels were higher in most regions after 30 days of forced abstinence and were decreased in most regions by either acute or chronic EE. Eleven regions had some statistically significant effect and/or interaction of EE or incubation on Fos; the most salient of these are listed here. In the prelimbic cortex, there was an incubation of Fos and EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. In contrast, in the orbitofrontal cortex, there was no Fos incubation but EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. An interaction of EE and incubation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core and shell where Fos incubated but EE only decreased Fos at the day 30 forced abstinence time point. In contrast, in the dorsolateral striatum Fos incubated, but EE robustly decreased Fos expression at both forced abstinence time points. These differential expression patterns provide rationale for more detailed, site-specific molecular functional studies in how they relate to the ability of EE to reduce sucrose seeking.
    Brain Structure and Function 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00429-015-1074-z · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Similarly, in studies where participants consumed larger portions of sugar-sweetened beverages alongside food, they did not decrease the amount of food consumed to compensate for the increased energy from the beverage (Flood, Roe, & Rolls, 2006; Vartanian, Schwartz, & Brownell, 2007). Evidence suggests that the calories from sugar-sweetened beverages are poorly regulated by the body, so additional portions of sugar-sweetened beverages may uniquely result in a significant increase in total energy intake (Flood et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2009). Although governments are fundamentally involved in the regulation of many aspects of the food supply, U.S. policies and programs related to serving sizes for children vary or are not clearly communicated . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: People of all ages are increasingly consuming larger portions of food. Governments worldwide are involved in the regulation of many aspects of the food supply; however, policies and programs related to serving sizes for children vary or are not clearly communicated. This paper reviews U.S. federal and state government recommendations, policies, and laws related to serving size for children and suggests directions for future policy objectives and outstanding research needed to support the enactment of laws based on the best science. Specifically, this manuscript reviews federal dietary recommendations and requirements for nutrition programs, packaged food labels and restaurant menus; state regulation of retail environments and child care settings; food companies' self-regulatory options; and directions for future research and policy initiatives. The paper concludes that there are many opportunities for government to revise its policies and programs to better support healthy portion sizes for children and create a more transparent information environment to assist caretakers to do the same. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Appetite 12/2014; 88. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.12.003 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Among them, behavioral (e.g., smoking , nutrition, and exercise) and pathological (e.g., metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia) factors can be pointed out. Epidemiological evidences have shown associations between dietary sugar-intake and increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome [4], type 2 diabetes [5], obesity [5] [6], and body adiposity [7], and the pathophysiology of these complications includes ectopic fat deposition with glucotoxic and lipotoxic actions [8]. To our knowledge there are few studies evaluating direct effects on LPO accessed by plasma MDA concentrations in humans. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to elucidate the determinants of higher plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) in free-living adults. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated 148 free-living subjects (54 ± 11 years, 78% women) at high risk for or with metabolic syndrome (MetS). They were assessed by anthropometry and body composition, dietary intake, and clinical and laboratorial analysis. The analysis of plasma MDA was performed by HPLC, and concentration values were used to provide four groups according to percentile distribution. Subjects with higher plasma MDA showed higher prevalence of MetS and higher values of waist circumference (WC), glucose, triglycerides (TG), γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), and higher energy intake. Multiadjusted logistic regression analysis identified as determinants of higher plasma MDA the altered values of WC and γ-GT followed by hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, higher dietary sugar-intake, and presence of MetS. In conclusion, the glucolipotoxic state predisposed by the presence of MetS seems to be the major determinant of higher plasma MDA concentrations.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 06/2014; 2014:505368. DOI:10.1155/2014/505368 · 3.36 Impact Factor
Show more