Breast cancer screening results 5 years after introduction of digital mammography in a population-based screening program.
ABSTRACT To compare full-field digital mammography (FFDM) using computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) with screen-film mammography (SFM) in a population-based breast cancer screening program for initial and subsequent screening examinations.
The study was approved by the regional medical ethics review board. Informed consent was not required. In a breast cancer screening facility, two of seven conventional mammography units were replaced with FFDM units. Digital mammograms were interpreted by using soft-copy reading with CAD. The same team of radiologists was involved in the double reading of FFDM and SFM images, with differences of opinion resolved in consensus. After 5 years, screening outcomes obtained with both modalities were compared for initial and subsequent screening examination findings.
A total of 367,600 screening examinations were performed, of which 56,518 were digital. Breast cancer was detected in 1927 women (317 with FFDM). At initial screenings, the cancer detection rate was .77% with FFDM and .62% with SFM. At subsequent screenings, detection rates were .55% and .49%, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant. Recalls based on microcalcifications alone doubled with FFDM. A significant increase in the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ was found with FFDM (P < .01). The fraction of invasive cancers with microcalcifications as the only sign of malignancy increased significantly, from 8.1% to 15.8% (P < .001). Recall rates were significantly higher with FFDM in the initial round (4.4% vs 2.3%, P < .001) and in the subsequent round (1.7% vs 1.2%, P < .001).
With the FFDM-CAD combination, detection performance is at least as good as that with SFM. The detection of ductal carcinoma in situ and microcalcification clusters improved with FFDM using CAD, while the recall rate increased.
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ABSTRACT: Based on an extensive cost-effectiveness analysis, the Dutch nation-wide breast cancer screening programme started in 1990, providing a biennial screen examination to women aged 50 to 69 years. The programme is monitored by the National Evaluation Team, which annually collects tabulated regional evaluation data to determine performance indicators. This study presents (trends in) the outcomes of initial and subsequent screening rounds, 1990-1995, and compares them to the predictions of the cost-effectiveness-analysis. Up to 1996, 88% of the target population was covered by the programme and more than 2.4 x 10(6) women were invited. The overall attendance rate was 77.5% with little differences between screening rounds and age groups; the highest rate was found in non-urbanised areas (82.4%). Of 1,000 initially (and 2 years thereafter) screened women, 13.4 (6.6) were referred for further investigation, 9.7 (4.4) were biopsied and 6.4 (3.4) had breast cancer. The positive predictive values of screen test and biopsy were 47% (51%) and 66% (78%), respectively. DCIS was diagnosed in 0.9 (0.5) and invasive cancers < or = 10 mm in 1.5 (1.0) per 1,000 screens. Lymph node metastases were found in 28% (24%) of the invasive cancers. Except the increasing attendance, which was much higher than expected, the results were fairly constant over the years. Contrary to initial screens, the results of subsequent screens did not fulfil expectations with regard to breast cancer detection and tumour size distribution. We conclude that the nation-wide screening programme is being implemented successfully. Given the results, the programme should contribute to a substantial breast cancer mortality reduction in the future. The discrepancy between observed and expected results in subsequent screens has to be watched carefully.International Journal of Cancer 03/1998; 75(5):694-8. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To prospectively compare full-field digital mammography (FFDM) with screen-film mammography (SFM) for cancer detection in a screening population. At two institutions, 4,945 FFDM examinations were performed in women aged 40 years and older presenting for SFM. Two views of each breast were acquired with each modality. SFM and FFDM images were interpreted independently. Findings detected with either SFM or FFDM were evaluated with additional imaging and, if warranted, biopsy. Patients in the study underwent 152 biopsies, which resulted in the diagnosis of 35 breast cancers. Twenty-two cancers were detected with SFM and 21 with FFDM. Four were interval cancers that became palpable within 1 year of screening and were considered false-negative findings with both modalities. The difference in cancer detection rate was not significant. FFDM had a significantly lower recall rate (11.5%; 568 of 4,945) than SFM (13.8%; 685 of 4,945) (P <.001, McNemar chi(2) model; P <.03, generalized estimating equations model). The positive biopsy rate for findings detected with FFDM (30%; 21 of 69) was higher than that for findings detected with SFM (19%; 22 of 114), but this difference was not significant. No difference in cancer detection rate has yet been observed between FFDM and SFM. FFDM has so far led to fewer recalls than SFM.Radiology 04/2001; 218(3):873-80. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to quantify the benefits of detecting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and of downwards stage-shifting within invasive tumours in mammographic screening. Using data from the Swedish Two-County Trial of breast cancer screening, we examined the 20-year death rates from invasive tumours of stage II or worse, invasive tumours of stage I and DCIS. We then used these rates and their respective incidences in invited (active study population, ASP) and control (passive study population, PSP) arms of the trial, to estimate the numbers of deaths avoided by downward stage-shifting the larger stage II or worse tumours to stage I and the stage I cancers to DCIS. We also studied the association between the mortality reduction achieved and the proportion of DCIS cases detected in the randomised trials of breast cancer screening. In the Swedish Two County Trial, 141 breast cancer deaths were avoided in the ASP compared with the PSP at approximately 20 years of follow-up. Of these, 65% (91/141) were avoided as a result of stage-shifting from invasive stage II or worse to invasive stage I, and 5% (7/141) as a result of stage-shifting from invasive stage I to DCIS. If we assumed that 10% of stage II or worse tumours avoided were shifted not to stage I, but to DCIS, the estimated number of deaths prevented by shifting from invasive disease to in situ was 17, which is 12% of all deaths prevented. When the results of all the randomised trials of breast cancer screening were reviewed, there was no clear association between the percentage of DCIS cases diagnosed and the observed mortality reduction. We conclude that compared with downward stage-shifting of invasive tumours, detection of DCIS plays a small part in saving lives from breast cancer. Treatment decisions in DCIS, as in invasive carcinoma, should take full account of histopathological, clinical and radiological attributes of the tumour.European Journal of Cancer 09/2003; 39(12):1755-60. · 5.06 Impact Factor