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Outbreak of common midwife toad virus in alpine newts (Mesotriton Alpestris Cyreni) and common midwife toads (Alytes Obstetricans) in Northern Spain: a comparative pathological study of an emerging ranavirus

SERIDA, Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario, Laboratorio de Sanidad Animal, 33299 Jove, Gijón, Spain.
The Veterinary Journal (Impact Factor: 2.17). 09/2009; 186(2):256-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.07.038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This report describes the isolation and characterisation of the common midwife toad virus (CMTV) from juvenile alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) and common midwife toad (CMT) tadpoles (Alytes obstetricans) in the Picos de Europa National Park in Northern Spain in August 2008. A comparative pathological and immunohistochemical study was carried out using anti-CMTV polyclonal serum. In the kidneys, glomeruli had the most severe histological lesions in CMT tadpoles, while both glomeruli and renal tubular epithelial cells exhibited foci of necrosis in juvenile alpine newts. Viral antigens were detected by immunohistochemical labelling mainly in the kidneys of CMT tadpoles and in ganglia of juvenile alpine newts. This is the first report of ranavirus infection in the alpine newt, the second known species to be affected by CMTV in the past 2 years.

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    • "Este último es un agente infeccioso capaz de provocar brotes de mortalidad en vertebrados ectotérmicos por todo el mundo (Brenes et al., 2014) y que puede dispersarse mediante la infección de portadores asintomáticos (Brenes, 2013). En 2008, Balseiro et al. (2010) detectaron una gran mortalidad causada por Ranavirus spp. en individuos juveniles de M. alpestris cyreni, precisamente una de las subespecies detectadas en la zona prospectada. "
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    • "Watersheds located at higher elevations have been associated with increased probability of ranavirus infection and epizootics in some North American amphibian populations (Gahl and Calhoun 2008). Environmental conditions such as ambient temperature or pollution have also been associated with increased prevalence of ranavirus infection and disease (Balseiro et al. 2010; Kerby et al. 2011). The influence of temperature on host and parasite has been increasingly documented as a critical environmental feature modulating host–pathogen interactions outcomes (Wolinska and King 2009; Vale and Little 2009). "
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    • "The first proven ranavirus-associated mass-mortality event in mainland Europe occurred in Spain 2007 in common midwife toads (Balseiro et al., 2009). In connection with a second disease outbreak in the same species in the Spanish Pyrenees, a ranavirus was also detected in alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris cyreni, formerly Mesotriton alpestris cyreni) (Balseiro et al., 2010). In Portugal, a ranavirus has been detected associated with mass mortality episodes affecting the newts Triturus marmoratus and T. boscai in 2003 (Alves de Matos et al., 2008). "
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