Effect of Laggera alata on hepatocyte damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Laggera alata, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used to ameliorate some ailments associated with inflammation including hepatitis in folk.
Based on anti-inflammatory activity of total phenolics from Laggera alata (TPLA), to further validate the remarkable curative effect Laggera alata in hepatitis, hepatoprotective effect of TPLA was examined.
TPLA was prepared and its principle components were quantificationally analyzed. The hepatoprotective effects of TPLA were studied using a CCl(4)-induced injury model in primary cultured neonatal rat hepatocytes, and a CCl(4)-induced acute and chronic damage model in vivo.
TPLA significantly reduced cellular leakage of hepatocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and improved cell viability in vitro. TPLA markedly decreased the serum AST and ALT levels of the mice, the levels of AST, ALT, total protein, albumin, and sialic acid in rat serum, and the hydroxyproline level in rat liver. Meanwhile, severe hepatic lesions induced by CCl(4) in mice/rats were remarkably improved by the administration of TPLA.
This investigation verifies the hepatoprotective effect of TPLA in vitro/in vivo and clarifies its active components dicaffeoylquinic acids responsible for hepatoprotective potential.
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ABSTRACT: Gender-related changes in plasma chemistry values were examined in guinea pigs after taking oral fluoxetine hydrochloride (HCl) as a widely prescribed drug for weight reduction and treatment of depressive disorders. Twenty guinea pigs of both sexes were divided into four groups of five animals. For both of the sexes, one group was treated with oral fluoxetine HCl (20 mg/kg/day) and another was used as a control which administered with distilled water. On the last day of the experiment (35th day), blood samples were collected for determining selected plasma biochemical parameters. For lipid profile, increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides were seen in both sexes, along with increases in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in males and decreases of LDL-C in females and atherogenic index in both sexes. The levels of total protein, globulins, urea, and creatinine were increased only in the male guinea pigs that received fluoxetine. Although, the levels of creatine phosphokinase and alanine transaminase decreased in the fluoxetine-treated female guinea pigs compared to control. Other parameters like lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, albumin, total bilirubin, (in)direct bilirubin, fasting blood sugar, calcium, and phosphorus did not alter following intake of fluoxetine in both sexes. For hormonal profile, testosterone and tetraiodothyronine (T4) in males and T3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone in both sexes did not change in fluoxetine-treated guinea pigs. However, the level of T4 decreased in fluoxetine-treated female group compared with the control group. Fluoxetine treatment resulted in gender-dependent effects. The decrease of T4 in female guinea pigs that received fluoxetine supports that this drug would be a possible endocrine disruptor.Comparative Clinical Pathology 12/2011;
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ABSTRACT: The whole plant of Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi (Family: Zygophyllaceae) is used in variety of diseases including hepatic ailments in deserts and dry areas of India. To evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract from Fagonia schweinfurthii (Hadidi) Hadidi (FSEE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and rats. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, ABTS radicals and hydrogen peroxide methods. In vitro cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective potential of FSEE were evaluated using HepG2 cells. Based on the cytotoxicity assay, FSEE (50, 100, 200µg/ml) was assessed for hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell line by monitoring cell viability, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione level (GSH). Further, in vivo hepatoprotective activity of FSEE was evaluated against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar albino rats. Rats were pre-treated with FSEE (200mg, 400mgkg(-1)day(-1) p.o.) for 7 days followed by a single dose of CCl4 (1.0ml/kg, i.p.) on 8th day. Silymarin was used as positive control. After 24h of CCl4 administration, various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and total protein (TP) levels were estimated in serum. The antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver homogenate were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver of different groups were also studied. The FSEE possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. The results indicated that CCl4 treatment caused a significant decrease in cell viability. The CCl4-induced changes in the HepG2 cells were significantly ameliorated by treatment of the FSEE. FSEE significantly prevented CCl4 induced elevation of AST, ALT, ALP, TB, and CCl4 induced decrease in total protein in rats. FSEE treated rat liver anti-oxidant parameters (SOD, CAT, MDA and GSH,) were significantly antagonized for the pro-oxidant effect of CCl4. Histopathological studies also supported the protective effect of FSEE. The results of this study revealed that FSEE has significant hepatoprotective activity. This effect may be due to the ability of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation and increase in the anti-oxidant enzymatic activity.Journal of ethnopharmacology 10/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In oriental regions, the resinous agarwood from Aquilaria trees is used during daily Asian religious practices and/or ceremonies either alone or as a part of incense burning. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect agarwood stick smoke on certain biochemical parameters. Ten male adult rats were divided into two groups (n = 5 each): Smoke-treated animals were exposed to agarwood smoke in a smoking apparatus for four sessions (1 h/day) per week and control animals exposed only to compressed air in a smoking apparatus similar to the smoke-exposed group. Blood samples were collected on the 28th day of the experiment to determine levels of a number of biochemical parameters: lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatine phosphokinase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, globulin, albumin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, cortisol, and testosterone. The changes in body weight and biochemical parameters were not statistically significant after exposure to agarwood smoke with respect to the control group. The only significant decrease was in plasma testosterone level and was observed in the smoking group in comparison to the control group which led us to consider agarwood as an endocrine disruptor.Comparative Clinical Pathology 01/2011;