Caries preventive effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): a meta-analysis
ABSTRACT This systematic review with meta-analyses sought to answer the following question: "Does CPP-ACP [casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate], when introduced into the oral environment, provide any caries-preventive benefit superior to that of any other intervention or placebo?"
Seven electronic databases were searched for trials relevant to the review question. Twelve articles were accepted after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Of the accepted articles, five in situ randomized control trials (RCT) could be pooled for meta-analyses. During the short-term (7-21 days) in situ trials, participants wore appliances containing enamel slabs that were analyzed in the laboratory after exposure to CPP-ACP. The pooled in situ results showed a weighted mean difference (WMD) of the percentage remineralization scores in favor of chewing gum with 18.8 mg CPP-ACP as compared to chewing gum without CPP-ACP (WMD -8.01; 95% CI: -10.54 to -5.48; p = 0.00001), as well as compared to no intervention (WMD -13.56; 95% CI: -16.49 to -10.62; p = 0.00001). A significant higher remineralization effect was also observed after exposure to 10.0 mg CPP-ACP (-7.75; 95% CI: -9.84 to -5.66; p = 0.00001). One long-term in vivo RCT (24 months) with a large sample size (n = 2720) found that the odds of a tooth surface's progressing to caries was 18% less in subjects who chewed sugar-free gum containing 54 mg CPP-ACP than in control subjects who chewed gum without CPP-ACP (p = 0.03).
Within the limitations of this systematic review with meta-analysis, the results of the clinical in situ trials indicate a short-term remineralization effect of CPP-ACP. Additionally, the promising in vivo RCT results suggest a caries-preventing effect for long-term clinical CPP-ACP use. Further randomized control trials are needed in order to confirm these initial results in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of different treatment methods used for the enamel damage, on the shear bond strength (SBS) and fracture mode of orthodontic brackets. Freshly-extracted 140 premolars were randomly allocated to seven groups: Group I was considered as the control of other groups. The remaining groups were exposed to demineralization. In group II, brackets were directly bonded to the demineralized enamel surface. CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse), fluoride varnish (Bifluorid 12), microabrasion with a mixture prepared with 18% hydrochloric acid and fine pumice powder, microabrasion with an agent (Opalustre) and resin infiltrant (Icon®) were applied in Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII, respectively. The specimens were tested for SBS and bond failures were scored according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used to compare the SBS of the groups. ARI scores were compared with G-test. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 level. Statistically significant differences were found among seven groups (F = 191.697; p < 0.001). The SBSs of groups I (mean = 18.8 ± 2.0 MPa) and VII (mean = 19.1 ± 1.4 MPa) were significantly higher than the other groups. No statistically significant difference was found between groups IV (mean = 11.5 ± 1.2 MPa) and V (mean = 12.6 ± 1.5 MPa). The differences in ARI scores of the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). All demineralization treatment methods improve bonding to demineralized enamel. Resin infiltrant application after demineralization showed similar bond strength values as intact enamel.Acta odontologica Scandinavica 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/00016357.2014.982703 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) containing pastes among individuals with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Thirty patients were randomised into three groups: CPP-ACP, CPP-ACFP, and 0.05 % NaF to be used two times a day during a 28-day experimental period. Saliva was analysed for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and mineral concentrations. Dental plaque was examined for pH. Following the formation of artificial carious lesion, participants wore enamel slabs for an in situ remineralisation study. Remineralisation potential was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) technique. SE microphotographs were subsequently analysed for area, diameter, perimeter, roundness and the number of enamel defects and percentage of tooth surface affected by defects. At the end of the experimental period, a slight increase of salivary pH could have been observed. No differences in mineral composition of saliva were noted. The use of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP contributed to a significant rise of plaque pH. Image analysis revealed excessive reduction of defects' dimensions in the three experimental groups, and a decrease of the number of enamel defects in the CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP groups. The EDS analysis did not show differences in Ca/P, Ca/O and P/O ratios in any of the treatment groups. CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP hold promise as remineralising agents for patients with SS. Pastes containing CPP-ACP/CPP-ACFP show enhanced remineralisation potential compared with NaF mouthrinse in patients with SS.Clinical Oral Investigations 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00784-015-1444-1 · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Untreated dentin caries in primary teeth is commonly found in preschool children worldwide. Recently, the use of simple non-surgical approaches to manage the situation has been advocated. The aim of the study was to systematically review and evaluate the literature on effectiveness of non-surgical methods in arresting or slowing down the progression of active dentin caries in primary teeth in preschool children. A systematic search of the main electronic databases (Pubmed, Cochrane Collaboration, EMBASE) was conducted to identify peer reviewed papers published in English in the years 1947-2014. Keywords and MeSH terms used in the search were "dental caries", "primary dentition" and various non-surgical treatments (fluoride, sealant, resin infiltration, xylitol, chlorhexidine, CPP-ACP, ozone, etc.). The inclusion criteria were clinical studies conducted in children under 6 years old, and reported findings on caries arrest or caries progression in primary teeth. Retrieved papers were read by two reviewers independently to assess suitability for inclusion, and the final decision was made by consensus. Quality of the included studies was assessed and data were extracted for analysis. The search identified 323 papers for screening. Among these, 290 papers did not satisfy the study inclusion criteria. Consequently, 33 full papers were retrieved and reviewed. Finally, 4 studies were included. Three studies reported that topical applications of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution could arrest dentin caries in preschool children. One study supported that having a daily toothbrushing exercise in kindergarten using toothpaste with 1000 ppm fluoride could stabilize the caries situation in young children. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of SDF applications or daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste in arresting or slowing down the progression of active dentin caries in primary teeth in preschool children. More well-designed randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings.BMC Oral Health 04/2015; 15(1):44. DOI:10.1186/s12903-015-0033-7 · 1.15 Impact Factor