The progesterone receptor regulates the expression of TRPV4 channel

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology and Channelopathies, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Edifici PRBB, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Room 343, C/Dr. Aiguader 88, Barcelona, 08003, Spain.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.1). 09/2009; 459(1):105-13. DOI: 10.1007/s00424-009-0706-7
Source: PubMed


The transient receptor potential cationic channel TRPV4 contributes to different aspects of cell physiology via the generation of a Ca2+ signal and/or depolarization of the membrane potential. TRPV4 channel integrates distinct physical and chemical stimuli, including osmotic and mechanical stress, heat, acidic pH, endogenous ligands, and synthetic agonists such as 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD). Although several regulatory sites controlling TRPV4 channel activity have been identified, very little is known about the regulation of TRPV4 expression, a situation common to other TRP channels. Here we show that TRPV4 expression is under the control of progesterone in both human airways and mammary gland epithelial cells, as well as in vascular smooth muscle cells. Exposure of human airways epithelial CFT1-LCFSN and mammary gland epithelial T47D cells to progesterone decreased TRPV4 mRNA and protein expression. Consequently, 4alphaPDD-induced cationic currents and Ca2+ signals were also diminished in progesterone-treated cells. The effect of progesterone was reverted by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU-486 or following transfection with small interference RNA (siRNA) against both PRA and PRB isoforms. Interestingly, TRPV4 expression and activity were increased in T47D mammary gland epithelial cells when PR was silenced with siRNA. Transcriptional regulation of -1.3 kB TRPV4 promoter-luciferase plasmids was also evaluated in vascular smooth muscle cells. TRPV4 promoter activity was reduced by coexpression with PR and further reduced in the presence of PG. Together, our data report the regulation of TRPV4 expression by progesterone, a process that requires a functional PR.

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    • "A similar current-voltage relationship was demonstrated in mutated TRPV4 channels [69], in which both aspartates in the TRPV4 pore region were neutralized, causing a marked reduction in outward rectification. Moreover, a modest outward/inward rectification was also shown in HEK293 cells expressing human TRPV4 [70] and in human airway epithelial CFT1-LCFSN cells [71]. Since it is not obvious what underlies the linear TRPV4 current-voltage relationship in adult astrocytes, we hypothesize that post-translational modifications, conformational changes of the TRPV4 protein or protein-protein interactions might contribute to such current behavior. "
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    ABSTRACT: The polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel, a member of the TRP channel family, is a calcium-permeable cationic channel that is gated by various stimuli such as cell swelling, low pH and high temperature. Therefore, TRPV4-mediated calcium entry may be involved in neuronal and glia pathophysiology associated with various disorders of the central nervous system, such as ischemia. The TRPV4 channel has been recently found in adult rat cortical and hippocampal astrocytes; however, its role in astrocyte pathophysiology is still not defined. In the present study, we examined the impact of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) on the functional expression of astrocytic TRPV4 channels in the adult rat hippocampal CA1 region employing immunohistochemical analyses, the patch-clamp technique and microfluorimetric intracellular calcium imaging on astrocytes in slices as well as on those isolated from sham-operated or ischemic hippocampi. Hypoxia/ischemia was induced by a bilateral 15-minute occlusion of the common carotids combined with hypoxic conditions. Our immunohistochemical analyses revealed that 7 days after H/I, the expression of TRPV4 is markedly enhanced in hippocampal astrocytes of the CA1 region and that the increasing TRPV4 expression coincides with the development of astrogliosis. Additionally, adult hippocampal astrocytes in slices or cultured hippocampal astrocytes respond to the TRPV4 activator 4-alpha-phorbol-12,-13-didecanoate (4αPDD) by an increase in intracellular calcium and the activation of a cationic current, both of which are abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or exposure to TRP antagonists, such as Ruthenium Red or RN1734. Following hypoxic/ischemic injury, the responses of astrocytes to 4αPDD are significantly augmented. Collectively, we show that TRPV4 channels are involved in ischemia-induced calcium entry in reactive astrocytes and thus, might participate in the pathogenic mechanisms of astroglial reactivity following ischemic insult.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39959. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039959 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, a significant decrease in TRPV4 expression was reported in the brain following transfer from SW to FW [4]. Progesterone, which stimulates a rise in intracellular Ca 2+ in human sperm cells [41], was found to reduce TRPV4 mRNA expression in human airway epithelial cells and mammary gland epithelial cells [16]. Knockout of the TRPV4 gene in mice resulted in an exaggerated increase in the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) when brain slices were incubated under increasing osmolalities, indicating that TRPV4 plays a role in the central control of hydromineral balance [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prolactin (PRL) cells of the euryhaline Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, are osmoreceptors. Hyposmotically-induced PRL release is mediated by the inward movement of extracellular Ca(2+) through a stretch-activated Ca(2+) channel, which has been recently identified as the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). In the present study, changes in plasma PRL, as well as PRL and TRPV4 mRNA expression from the rostral pars distalis (RPD), were measured in fish transferred from seawater (SW) to fresh water (FW) and in fish transferred from FW to SW. The in vitro effects of osmolality on PRL release and on PRL and TRPV4 mRNA expression in dispersed PRL cells were compared between fish adapted to SW and FW. Both the release and expression of PRL fell when fish were transferred to SW and rose when fish were transferred to FW. By contrast, TRPV4 expression increased by 48h after fish were transferred from FW to SW and declined as early as 6h after transfer from SW to FW. A similar pattern was observed in vitro where TRPV4 expression responded positively to an increase in medium osmolality while PRL expression declined. Incubation with the Ca(2+) ionophore, A23187, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX, stimulated PRL release. While both IBMX and A23187 inhibited TRPV4 expression, only A23187 reduced PRL expression. Together, these findings indicate that the expression of TRPV4 mRNA is osmosensitive, increasing as extracellular osmolality rises. Furthermore, these data suggest that TRPV4 expression may be regulated through the same second messenger pathways involved in hyposmotically-induced PRL release.
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical loading significantly influences the physiology and pathology of articular cartilage, although the mechanisms of mechanical signal transduction are not fully understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(++)-permeable ion channel that is highly expressed by articular chondrocytes and can be gated by osmotic and mechanical stimuli. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Trpv4 in the structure of the mouse knee joint and to determine whether Trpv4(-/-) mice exhibit altered Ca(++) signaling in response to osmotic challenge. Knee joints of Trpv4(-/-) mice were examined histologically and by microfocal computed tomography for osteoarthritic changes and bone structure at ages 4, 6, 9, and 12 months. Fluorescence imaging was used to quantify chondrocytic Ca(++) signaling within intact femoral cartilage in response to osmotic stimuli. Deletion of Trpv4 resulted in severe osteoarthritic changes, including cartilage fibrillation, eburnation, and loss of proteoglycans, that were dependent on age and male sex. Subchondral bone volume and calcified meniscal volume were greatly increased, again in male mice. Chondrocytes from Trpv4(+/+) mice demonstrated significant Ca(++) responses to hypo-osmotic stress but not to hyperosmotic stress. The response to hypo-osmotic stress or to the TRPV4 agonist 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate was eliminated in Trpv4(-/-) mice. Deletion of Trpv4 leads to a lack of osmotically induced Ca(++) signaling in articular chondrocytes, accompanied by progressive, sex-dependent increases in bone density and osteoarthritic joint degeneration. These findings suggest a critical role for TRPV4-mediated Ca(++) signaling in the maintenance of joint health and normal skeletal structure.
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