Lynch syndrome screening strategies among newly diagnosed endometrial cancer patients.
ABSTRACT To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for Lynch syndrome among newly diagnosed endometrial cancer patients.
A decision analysis compared four strategies to screen women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer for Lynch syndrome: 1) Amsterdam criteria strategy, where full gene sequencing was performed for women who meet Amsterdam criteria; 2) Sequence-all strategy, where full gene sequencing was performed for all women with endometrial cancer; 3) Sequence aged younger than 60 years strategy, where full gene sequencing was performed for women aged younger than 60 years with endometrial cancer; and 4) immunohistochemistry/single gene strategy, where immunohistochemistry was performed for the DNA mismatch repair genes for all women after single gene sequencing for specific women lacking protein expression. Prevalence rates, probabilities of immunohistochemistry staining loss, and gene mutation rates were calculated from published data. Costs were estimated from Medicare reimbursement rates. Cost-effectiveness ratios and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated for each strategy.
For the estimated 40,000 women diagnosed annually with endometrial cancer, the sequence-all strategy detects 920 patients with Lynch syndrome at a cost of $105 million. The Amsterdam criteria give the least-expensive strategy ($7 million), but detect the fewest patients (n=83) with Lynch syndrome. The immunohistochemistry/single gene sequencing strategy detects 858 patients at a cost of $17 million; this strategy has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $13,812. The sequence aged younger than 60 years strategy was less effective and more costly than other strategies.
Of the strategies studied, immunohistochemical evaluation of tumor specimens for mismatch repair protein expression after single gene sequencing for patients with endometrial cancer is a cost-effective strategy for detecting Lynch syndrome.
- SourceAvailable from: André Samson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the experience of individuals facing a choice about genetic counselling/testing in the context of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC). Nineteen individuals with newly diagnosed CRC, including 12 individuals who accepted genetic counselling ("acceptors") and 7 individuals who declined genetic counselling ("refusers"), were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire guide which focused on motivations and barriers experienced in the decision process. Data were analyzed using Karlsson's Empirical Phenomenological method of data analysis (Karlsson in Psychological qualitative research from a phenomenological perspective. Almgvist and Wiksell International, Stockholm, 1993). Three major themes were identified: facing challenges in health literacy; mapping an unknown territory; and adjusting to cancer. The study participants' testimonies provided novel insights into potential reasons for patient non-engagement in pilot studies of reflex testing for Lynch syndrome, and allowed us to formulate several recommendations for enhancing patient engagement. Our study findings suggest that patient engagement in clinical cancer genetics services, including reflex testing for Lynch syndrome, can only be achieved by addressing current health literacy issues, by deconstructing current misconceptions related to potential abuses of genetic information, by emphasizing the clinical utility of genetic assessment, and by adapting genetics practices to the specific context of cancer care.Familial Cancer 09/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) expression and microsatellite instability are two of the more common molecular alterations in endometrial carcinoma. From the published literature, it is controversial as to whether there is a relationship between these different molecular mechanisms. Therefore, a cohort of 187 pure endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, carefully characterized as to clinical and pathological features, was examined for PTEN sequence abnormalities and the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and the DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. MLH1 methylation analysis was performed when tumors had loss of MLH1 protein. Mismatch repair protein loss was more frequent in endometrioid carcinomas compared with non-endometrioid carcinomas, a difference primarily attributable to the presence of MLH1 methylation in a greater proportion of endometrioid tumors. Among the non-endometrioid group, mixed endometrioid/non-endometrioid carcinomas were the histotype that most commonly had loss of a mismatch repair protein. In endometrioid tumors, the frequency of PTEN loss measured by immunohistochemistry and mutation did not differ significantly between the mismatch repair protein intact or mismatch repair protein loss groups, suggesting that PTEN loss is independent of mismatch protein repair status in this group. However, in non-endometrioid carcinomas, both intact positive PTEN immunohistochemical expression and PTEN wild type were highly associated with retained positive expression of mismatch repair proteins in the tumor. Relevant to screening endometrial cancers for Lynch Syndrome, an initial PTEN immunohistochemistry determination may be able to replace the use of four mismatch repair immunohistochemical markers in 63% of patients with non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Therefore, PTEN immunohistochemistry, in combination with tumor histotype, is a useful adjunct in the clinical evaluation of endometrial carcinomas for Lynch Syndrome.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 19 April 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.67.Modern Pathology 04/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An electronic survey of the National Society of Genetic Counselors Cancer Special Interest Group was conducted in July 2011 to assess Lynch syndrome tumor screening programs and identify barriers to implementation. Over half of respondents (52.8 %) reported having a routine Lynch syndrome tumor screening protocol for newly diagnosed colon and/or endometrial cancers, and approximately half of these used a universal approach. There was an increase in the number of those screening over time, especially in the past 3 years. Tumor screening methods varied; 34/53 (64.2 %) started with immunohistochemistry, 11/53 (20.8 %) started with microsatellite instability testing and 8/53 (15.1 %) performed both on newly diagnosed colorectal tumors. Just 21.7 % (23/106) of respondents indicated they have a tumor screening program in place for newly diagnosed endometrial cancers. Written consent is rarely obtained (7.1 %) and the method of how results were returned to the patient was variable among respondents. Prevalent barriers to implementation were concern about cost, bringing key players together and convincing medical staff of the necessity. Use of Lynch syndrome tumor screening is in clinical practice, but protocols vary widely. This survey provides a glimpse of current practices and common barriers, and identifies the need for tumor screening algorithms with outcomes data.Journal of Genetic Counseling 05/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor