The effect of active hexose correlated compound in modulating cytosine arabinoside-induced hair loss, and 6-mercaptopurine- and methotrexate-induced liver injury in rodents

Amino Up Chemical Co, Ltd, 363-32 Shin-ei, Sapporo, Japan.
Cancer epidemiology 09/2009; 33(3-4):293-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2009.07.006
Source: PubMed


Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) (a mixture of polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and minerals derived from cultured mycelia of a Basidiomycete mushroom, Lentinula edodes) was used to assess amelioration of alopecia (hair loss) caused by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and modulation of liver injury caused by single doses 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) plus methotrexate (MTX).
Follicular integrity and hair growth was assessed in male and female SD neonatal rats (8 days old) treated with a single dose of Ara-C (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and AHCC (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days. The side effects of a single oral dose of 6-MP (2.5mg/kg body weight) plus MTX (30 mg/kg body weight) and their amelioration by treatment with AHCC (1000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days were assessed in male ddY mice (8 weeks old).
Of the Ara-C treated rats 71.4% showed severe alopecia and 28.6% showed moderate alopecia. However, the AHCC (p.o.)-treated Ara-C group was significantly protected from alopecia. Ara-C treated rats had profound loss of hair follicles but the Ara-C plus AHCC-treated group had mild losses of follicles. AHCC supplementation to the 6-MP- and MTX-treated mice significantly increased body weight, erythrocytes, leukocytes and serum albumin, improved liver hypertrophy and degeneration, normalized the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), and enhanced liver drug-metabolizing enzymes.
Co-administration of AHCC significantly reduced the side effects associated with Ara-C, 6-MP and MTX. However, the molecular mechanism for AHCC activity and its clinical integrity for use needs defining.

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    • "Acetylated linear α-(1→4)-glucan which has a molecular mass of about 5 kDa, was obtained by enzymatic reduction of side chains from active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) and it is considered to be main active ingredient . AHCC is a product prepared by cultivation and enzymatic modification of several species of mushroom mycelia, including shiitake, grown in rice bran extract as the primary food source and contains a mixture of polysaccharides (∼74% of AHCC from where ∼20% being of the α-1,4-glucan type), proteins, lipids and minerals [38]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to present the currently published evidence regarding the use, efficacy, potential mechanisms of action, and results of published clinical trials regarding the use of a Lentinula edodes mushroom-derived extract (active hexose correlated compound) as complementary therapy in patients with cancer. The authors explore the current preclinical and clinical evidence as it relates to this topic and its potential use in the surgical oncology patient. There has been a growing interest in stimulation of the immune system in trauma, cancer, and surgical patients in general. Little, however, has been written about some-of the supplements in widely used in Japan and China, but relatively unheard of in the United States.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Anthracyclines and taxanes are often used as first-line chemotherapy treatments in patients with breast cancer. There are, however, significant toxicity and side effects associated with these therapies. Previous studies have demonstrated that active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) reduces such side effects. The present study explored the beneficial effects of AHCC on adverse events in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Subjects: Forty-one women who were treated with anthracyclines and taxanes at Nagumo Clinic in Tokyo from October 2004 to March 2011 were selected for this study. Outcome measures: We compared the occurrence of adverse events in patients who received AHCC with those who did not receive AHCC. Using Fisher's exact tests, we also compared the worst-grade adverse events in each treatment cycle. Generalized estimating equations were employed to compare longitudinal changes, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in the two groups was analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: We found that, compared to the control group, the AHCC group had significantly fewer neutrophil-related events (odds ratio, 0.30; p=0.016), significantly lower use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and a higher (although not significant) rate of adverse events associated with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Conclusions: AHCC has the potential to reduce the severity of neutropenia induced by breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of G-CSF during chemotherapy.
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