The EEG as an independent indicator of mortality and healthcare utilization.
ABSTRACT Determine whether EEG findings could be used as an independent prognostic indicator of outcomes in a general patient population.
A large electronic medical record was used to merge the results of EEG studies with the results of medical evaluations including: medications prescribed, medical diagnoses, blood test results, imaging results, and outcomes in 3193 patients. Univariable and multivariable analyses were undertaken to determine whether the EEG had a role in predicting outcomes independent of other factors in a clinic population.
Patients with abnormal EEG's had significantly higher mortalities, greater cost of healthcare and more evaluation visits than patients with normal EEG's in every age range independent of the presence other medical conditions. The costs associated with caring for a patient with an abnormal EEG were roughly three times that of a patient with a normal EEG. The risk of death in the multivariable analysis was 3.7 times higher in patients with an abnormal EEG than in patients with a normal EEG.
In addition to its traditional diagnostic implications, the EEG may convey information about general level of illness and the cost of caring for patients.
Certain EEG findings may identify high risk patients and thus may open the door to possible interventions.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael L Ganz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: Obesity is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a case-control study to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of being diagnosed with T2D in the United States. We selected adults (>= 18 years old) who were diagnosed with T2D (defined by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes or use of anti-diabetic medications) between January 2004 and October 2011 ("cases") from an electronic health records database provided by an integrated health system in the Middle Atlantic region. Twice as many individuals enrolled in the health system without a T2D diagnosis during the study period ("controls") were selected based on age, sex, history of cardiac comorbidities or hyperinflammatory state (defined by C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate), and use of psychiatric or beta blocker medications. BMI was measured during one year prior to the first observed T2D diagnosis (for cases) or a randomly assigned date (for controls); individuals with no BMI measure or BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 were excluded. We assessed the impact of increased BMI (overweight: 25-29.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class I: 30-34.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class II: 35-39.9 kg/m2; Obesity Class III: >=40 kg/m2), relative to normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), on a T2D diagnosis using odds ratios (OR) and relative risks (RR) estimated from multiple logistic regression results. We included 12,179 cases (mean age: 55, 43% male) and 25,177 controls (mean age: 56, 45% male). We found a positive association between BMI and the risk of a T2D diagnosis. The strength of this association increased with BMI category (RR [95% confidence interval]: overweight, 1.5 [1.4-1.6]; Obesity Class I, 2.5 [2.3-2.6]; Obesity Class II, 3.6 [3.4-3.8]; Obesity Class III, 5.1 [4.7-5.5]). BMI is strongly and independently associated with the risk of being diagnosed with T2D. The incremental association of BMI category on the risk of T2D is stronger for people with a higher BMI relative to people with a lower BMI.Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 04/2014; 6(1):50. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With buffered hydrogen fluoride (BHF) treatment, the etch rate of thermal oxide gradually increases over time. Thus, the old BHF must be frequently changed to new BHF in order to maintain the etch rate. As a result, considerable BHF and other chemicals to treat waste BHF are consumed and considerable waste such as sludge and wastewater is discharged. We have developed a new method to maintain the etch rate by supplying ammonia and water evaporated from BHF. The amount depends on the amount of NH<sub>4</sub>F/HF in BHF. Since the method can extend the usable lifetime of BHF, it will help to reduce BHF used and the chemicals required to treat waste BHF and decrease the discharge of wastewater and sludge.IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 12/2002; · 0.86 Impact Factor