Pre-Pregnancy Overweight Status between Successive Pregnancies and Pregnancy Outcomes
ABSTRACT The two objectives of this study were to (1) examine factors associated with changes in pre-pregnancy overweight to pre-pregnancy normal/underweight or obese Body Mass Index (BMI) in the subsequent pregnancy, and (2) assess select pregnancy and newborn outcomes associated with changes in pre-pregnancy BMI.
Birth certificates from 1995-2004 for residents of Kansas City, Missouri, were used to identify overweight nulliparous women who had a singleton birth and subsequently a second singleton birth. Maternal factors associated with changes in BMI between pregnancies were determined. Hypertension in pregnancy, preterm birth, emergency cesarean section, small-for-gestational age, and large-for-gestational age outcomes were examined.
At second pregnancy, 55% of the women remained overweight, 33% were obese, and 12% had normal/underweight BMIs. The upward shift in BMI was associated with being unmarried and having a birth interval of 18 or more months, while the downward shift was associated with gestational weight gain. Of the five outcomes variables, only emergency cesarean section was significantly associated with an upward shift in BMI.
Clinical interventions for pre-pregnancy overweight women should focus on appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and motivators for loss of pregnancy-related weight during the postpartum period.
SourceAvailable from: Zachary M Ferraro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine a precise estimate for the contribution of maternal obesity to macrosomia. Data Sources. The search strategy included database searches in 2011 of PubMed, Medline (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid Medline, 1950-2011), and EMBASE Classic + EMBASE. Appropriate search terms were used for each database. Reference lists of retrieved articles and review articles were cross-referenced. Methods of Study Selection. All studies that examined the relationship between maternal obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) (pregravid or at 1st prenatal visit) and fetal macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g, ≥4500 g, or ≥90th percentile) were considered for inclusion. Tabulation, Integration, and Results. Data regarding the outcomes of interest and study quality were independently extracted by two reviewers. Results from the meta-analysis showed that maternal obesity is associated with fetal overgrowth, defined as birth weight ≥ 4000 g (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.92, 2.45), birth weight ≥4500 g (OR 2.77,95% CI 2.22, 3.45), and birth weight ≥90% ile for gestational age (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.16, 2.72). Conclusion. Maternal obesity appears to play a significant role in the development of fetal overgrowth. There is a critical need for effective personal and public health initiatives designed to decrease prepregnancy weight and optimize gestational weight gain.BioMed Research International 12/2014; 2014:640291. DOI:10.1155/2014/640291 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the postpartum health of predominantly Hispanic participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and identify how health characteristics differ between mothers who delivered preterm or low birth weight infants and those who did not. Design Cross-sectional survey among postpartum WIC mothers. Setting Los Angeles and Orange Counties, CA. Participants WIC participants within 1 year of delivery (n = 1,420). Main Outcome Measures Postpartum health behaviors, health characteristics, and birth spacing intentions and behaviors. Analysis Frequencies of health characteristics were estimated using analyses with sample weights. Differences were assessed with chi-square and Fisher exact tests with Bonferroni correction for pairs of tests. Results Many women exhibited postpartum risk factors for future adverse health events, including overweight or obesity (62.3%), depressive symptoms (27.5%), and no folic acid supplementation (65.5%). Most characteristics did not differ significantly (P > .025) between mothers of preterm infants and full-term infants or between mothers of low birth weight and normal birth weight infants. Conclusions and Implications Despite few differences between postpartum characteristics of mothers who delivered preterm or low birth weight infants and those who did not, a high percentage of mothers had risk factors that need to be addressed. Current postpartum educational activities of WIC programs should be evaluated and shared.Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 11/2014; 46(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jneb.2014.06.008 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions.Reproductive Health 09/2014; 11 Suppl 3:S3. DOI:10.1186/1742-4755-11-S3-S3 · 1.62 Impact Factor