Validation of the support provided measure among spouses of smokers receiving a clinical smoking cessation intervention
ABSTRACT Studies indicate a positive association between social support and smoking cessation. However, clinic-based interventions designed to increase social support have had limited success. Most studies have relied on only the smoker's perceptions of support received while few have assessed the support provider's report of support delivered. Understanding supportive interactions between support providers and recipients may assist in developing effective support interventions for cessation. The current investigation examined the perceptions of smoking-specific support provided by the spouse of a partner who smokes and was seen for a nicotine dependence consultation. Specifically, we examined spouse reported willingness to help their spouse quit, interest in learning ways to help their spouse quit, and characteristics associated with the provision of smoking-specific supportive behaviors (as assessed via the Support Provided Measure, SPM), in the 2-weeks prior to the consultation. The current investigation also examined the concurrent validity of the SPM with a validated measure of support provided to a smoker, the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ), accounting for social desirability bias and smoker readiness to change. The sample comprised 84 adult cigarette smokers seen for a clinical smoking cessation intervention and their spouses (N = 84). Results indicate that a high percentage of spouses are willing to help their partner who smokes and interested in learning way to help. As expected, spouses who were females and had never smoked had higher scores on the SPM than males or current smokers. The SPM was significantly correlated with the PIQ positive (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and negative (r = 0.44, p <0.01) item scales overall and for spouses whose partners reported higher levels of readiness to quit smoking (r = 0.54, p < 0.01; r = 0.50, p < 0.01, respectively). Suggestions for future research are offered.
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ABSTRACT: This study of 1025 adolescent nonsmokers aged 11-19 years examined level of interest and factors associated with reported willingness to help someone stop smoking. Data were collected from a survey distributed primarily in the schools at four geographic and ethnically diverse study sites. A total of 692 adolescents identified someone close to them who smokes whom they thought should quit. Of these, 90% reported that they would be willing to help this person stop smoking. Multivariate predictors of willingness to help were female gender, less difficulty reading English, and greater level of comfort with talking to the smoker about their smoking. The smoker that the adolescents were willing to help was most often a parent or same age friend. If this strong interest among adolescents could be tapped, engaging teens as support persons could be a novel public health approach to reaching parents, adolescents, and other smokers in the population.Preventive Medicine 12/2004; 39(6):1099-106. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.04.020 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a skills-training intervention for adults interested in helping someone to stop smoking (i.e., support persons). Sixty adult support persons (77% female) were directly recruited from the community and randomly assigned to this intervention (manual plus five weekly group-based sessions) or a control condition (one-page leaflet). All intervention and outcome assessments occurred through the support persons. Assessments occurred at weeks 0 (baseline), 6 (end of treatment), 12, and 24. The study was conducted from 1998 to 2001; data collection occurred from 1999 to 2000. Outcomes were ratings of treatment acceptability, recruitment and retention rates, supportive behaviors provided to the smoker, and smoking behavior change in the smoker as reported by the support person. Support persons were recruited in a timely manner and study retention rates were high. Support persons in skills training showed significant increases in their supportive behavior scores compared with control subjects at weeks 6 and 12. Although not statistically significant, the skills-training intervention was associated with more quit attempts, greater improvement in stage of change, and higher 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates in the smokers than the control condition. A skills training intervention for support persons is feasible and acceptable. Further studies are needed to test the efficacy of this approach for smoking cessation.American Journal of Preventive Medicine 07/2004; 26(5):386-90. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.02.008 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To provide an overview of the role of social support in smoking cessation and to critically review evidence regarding the use of "buddy systems" (where smokers are specifically provided with someone to support them) to aid smoking cessation. Studies were located by searching Medline and Psyclit using the key words "smoking", "smoking cessation", "social support", and "buddy". Additional studies were identified through reference lists. Only studies reported in English and published since 1980 were included. Studies were selected on four criteria: publication in a peer reviewed journal; randomised controlled trial using smokers who wanted to stop; the use of a social support intervention, including a "buddy"; dependent variable of smoking abstinence. Most research in this area does not use a randomised design so only a small proportion of the originally identified studies were included. In view of the diverse nature of the studies, a meta-analysis was not attempted. Ten studies were identified: nine were clinic based smoking trials, eight used a group format, and nine used buddies from among smokers' existing relationships. Support training varied from role play and rehearsal to a simple instruction to call each other regularly. Intervention and follow up periods varied between studies. Two studies showed a significant benefit of the intervention in the short term. Research methodology in many cases was poor. The evidence would suggest that in the context of a smokers clinic the use of buddies may be of some benefit. There is a lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of the use of buddies in community interventions. This is an important area for future research.Tobacco Control 01/2001; 9(4):415-22. DOI:10.1136/tc.9.4.415 · 5.93 Impact Factor