Birth outcomes, postpartum health and primary care contacts of immigrant mothers in an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.
ABSTRACT To investigate differences and similarities in birth outcomes, postpartum health and primary care contacts of mothers born overseas of non-English speaking background (NESB) compared with Australian-born mothers. Nulliparous women were recruited in early pregnancy (< or =24 weeks gestation) to a prospective pregnancy cohort study from six metropolitan public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Analyses are based on questionnaires completed in pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum. Of the 1,507 women recruited in the study, 1,431 women (95%) were followed up at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant mothers of NESB (n = 212) and Australian born mothers (n = 1,074) had similar obstetric outcomes and postpartum physical health outcomes. Immigrant women were more likely to say they had been depressed for 2 weeks or longer since the birth (Adj OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.3-2.8); to report relationship problems (Adj OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.9-2.1) and to report lower emotional satisfaction with their relationship with the partner (Adj OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.1-2.6) after adjusting for age, education status, income, method of birth and genital tract trauma. Immigrant mothers were less likely to be asked about feeling low or depressed by general practitioners (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and about relationship problems by maternal and child health nurses (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). Immigrant women of NESB reported greater psychological distress, less emotional satisfaction with their partner and more relationship problems in the first 3 months postpartum than Australian born women. Although immigrant mothers had an equivalent level of contact with primary care practitioners in the first 3 months postpartum, they were less likely to be asked about their emotional well-being or about relationship problems by health professionals.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the community and evaluate identifiable risk factors. Cross-sectional survey using a validated questionnaire. A short version of the questionnaire was sent to 220 subjects and a long version to 770 subjects, randomly selected from western Sydney, Australia. Self-reported faecal incontinence, defined as involuntary loss of anal sphincteric control leading to unwanted release of liquid or solid faeces (not flatus) at an inappropriate time or in an inappropriate place, within the past 12 months. The long questionnaire also sought information on bowel habit and potential risk factors for faecal incontinence. The response rate was 66%. The prevalence of solid or liquid faecal incontinence was 2% and 9%, respectively. The mean age of subjects with faecal incontinence was 53 years; 55% were women. After adjusting for age and sex, there was a significant association between faecal incontinence and perianal injury (P = 0.03), perianal surgery (P < 0.001), feelings of incomplete defecation (P < 0.0001), loose or watery motions (P < 0.0001) and urgency (P < 0.0001). Seven of 48 subjects with faecal incontinence reported being asked by their physician about faecal incontinence and nine of 33 reported seeking medical advice for their incontinence. Subjects with faecal incontinence perceived their health to be significantly poorer than did other subjects (P = 0.02). There is a high burden of faecal incontinence in the community, and the prevalence in men may be greater than is usually appreciated. Despite significant associated morbidity, most cases of faecal incontinence were unrecognised by doctors.The Medical journal of Australia 01/2002; 176(2):54-7. · 2.85 Impact Factor
- BMJ 06/2001; 322(7294):1096-7. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To document sexual and emotional satisfaction with their relationships and desired and actual frequency of sex among a representative sample of Australian adults. Between mid-2001 and mid-2002, computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by 10,173 men and 9,134 women aged 16-59 years from all States and Territories selected by modified random-digit dialling of households (response rate 73.1%). Respondents in a regular relationship were asked how physically pleasurable they found sex with the partner to be and how emotionally satisfying the relationship was. All respondents were asked how often they would ideally like to have sex and how often they had sex in the past four weeks. Most people in heterosexual relationships found sex very or extremely pleasurable (90.3% men, 79.1% women) and the relationship emotionally satisfying (87.5% men, 79.2% women); men were more satisfied with both. Physical pleasure in sex was correlated with emotional satisfaction. One person in four had had no sex in the past four weeks; most people had had sex less than twice a week. Most people wanted ideally to have sex more often than they did. However, 24.3% of men but only 8.3% of women said they ideally wanted sex daily or more often. Men on average express higher levels of relationship satisfaction and of sexual interest, but the overlap between men and women is large.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 02/2003; 27(2):171-9. · 1.64 Impact Factor