Differential expression of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr genes in sterile triploids and fertile tetraploids.
ABSTRACT Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin hormone (GTH), and gonadotropin hormone receptor (GTHR) are the pivotal signal molecules of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, which plays a crucial role in regulating gonadal development in vertebrate. In this study, we comparatively analyze the expression characteristics of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr in red crucian carp diploids, triploids, and allotetraploids. The expression patterns of these genes are similar in the three fish ploidy types: the Gnrh2 gene is expressed in midbrains, pituitaries, and gonads; the Gthbeta gene is expressed in pituitaries; the Gthr gene is mainly expressed in gonads. These results indicate that the three genes participate in the regulation of gonadal development. By real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we find that, among these three fish ploidy types, the expression level of Gthr in the gonads of triploids is lower than those of diploids and tetraploids; this weakens the combination of GTHR with GTH released from the pituitary and leads to the sterility of triploids, since the gonad cannot produce enough sex steroids. In addition, the low expression of Gthr in triploids may affect the down-regulation of Gthbeta, which then affects the down-regulation of Gnrh2; hence, the expression levels of Gnrh2 and Gthbeta genes in triploids are the highest after the breeding season. In conclusion, the differential expression of Gnrh2, Gthbeta, and Gthr in triploids and tetraploids is related to their sterility and bisexual fertility, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: cDNA clones encoding the beta subunit of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone; TSH) were isolated from a cDNA library made from the pituitaries of immature rainbow trout and sequenced. The precursor of rainbow trout TSH beta consists of 147 aa, which can be cleaved into a signal peptide (20 aa) and a mature protein (127 aa) containing one potential N-glycosylation site and 12 cysteine residues. The protein showed highest homology with human TSH beta (51%) and lesser homology with human follitropin (42%), human lutropin (32%), and salmon gonadotropin (31-33%) beta subunits. The identification of TSH in addition to two gonadotropins (gonadotropins I and II) in the teleost fish suggests that the divergence of three kinds of glycoprotein hormones from an ancestral molecule took place earlier than the time of divergence of teleosts from the main line of evolution leading to tetrapods. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression of the rainbow trout TSH beta gene is specific to the pituitary gland and is significantly higher in immature fish than in mature fish, suggesting that TSH plays some role in the biological processes of immature fish.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/1993; 90(13):6052-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pituitary gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulate steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis by activating receptors expressed by Leydig cells (LH receptor) and Sertoli cells (FSH receptor), respectively. This concept is also valid in fish, although the piscine receptors may be less discriminatory than their mammalian counterparts. The main biological activity of LH is to regulate Leydig-cell steroid production. Steroidogenesis is moreover modulated in an autoregulatory manner by androgens. The male sex steroids (testosterone in higher vertebrates, 11-ketotestosterone in fish) are required for spermatogenesis, but their mode of action has remained obscure. While piscine FSH also appears to have steroidogenic activity, specific roles have not been described yet in the testis. The feedback of androgens on gonadotrophs presents a complex pattern. Aromatizable androgens/estrogens stimulate LH synthesis in juvenile fish; this effect fades out during maturation. This positive feedback on LH synthesis is balanced by a negative feedback on LH release, which may involve GnRH neurones. While the role of GnRH as LH secretagogue is evident, we have found no indication in adult male African catfish for a direct, GnRH-mediated stimulation of LH synthesis. The limited available information at present precludes a generalized view on the testicular feedback on FSH.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 07/2001; 129(2-3):407-17. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study we cloned, sequenced, and confirmed the presence of mRNAs of gonadotropins (FSH-beta, LH-beta subunits) from the brain and pituitary of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Further, we examined the spatio-temporal expression pattern of FSH-beta and LH-beta in the brain and pituitary of two species of teleost (tilapia, O. niloticus; sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka), using in situ hybridization and immunological methods. The expression of FSH and LH immunoreactivity appeared simultaneously in the brain and pituitary (tilapia, 14 days; sockeye, 51 days after fertilization). In the pituitary, FSH mRNA and peptide expressing cells were distinct from LH expressing cells located in the ventral proximal pars distalis. In the brain, FSH and LH immunoreactivity was co-localized in cells of the preoptic nucleus parvocellularis, magnocellularis, and gigantocellularis. Fibers immunoreactive to FSH and LH antisera were seen along the forebrain-hypothalamus and in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. Double-label immunofluorescence revealed FSH and LH immunoreactivity co-localized in arginine vasotocin synthesizing preoptic neurons. Our results show that FSH and LH-producing cells have developmental origins in the brain as well as in the pituitary. In addition, we propose that the brain-derived gonadotropins may function as hypophysiotropic hormones that regulate pituitary cells and along with arginine vasotocin could act as neuromodulators of reproductive behaviors.General and Comparative Endocrinology 08/2003; 132(3):369-78. · 2.82 Impact Factor