Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva to the Lung Confirmed With Allelotyping
ABSTRACT A squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung can be indistinguishable from metastatic SCC of gynecologic origin using common histopathologic techniques; however, establishing tumor origin can be clinically relevant. A patient with a Bartholin gland SCC was found to also have a pulmonary SCC, concerning for metastasis versus synchronous pulmonary primary. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry alone could not differentiate the lesion, and both tumors were human papilloma virus positive. Allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity established the pulmonary lesion as a rare event of vulvar pulmonary metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy instead of curative treatment. Allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity is an effective tool to establish metastasis versus synchronous primary tumors in the presence of multiple lesions, helping to direct appropriate clinical management.
- SourceAvailable from: Susan D Moffatt-Bruce
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- "Most commonly, carcinomas can have areas on chromosomes in which the DNA is altered or sustains a LOH. Allelotyping is a process that involves withdrawing and amplifying the DNA to search for patterns of LOH or alteration . "
ABSTRACT: Histopathologic techniques are insufficient for distinguishing primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from metastatic SCC, which is clinically important. A patient with SCC of the anus was found to also have SCC of the lung, and the question of metastatic versus synchronous primary diseases was raised. Immunohistochemical and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining on sections of tissue could not discriminate between the two entities. Immunostain for p16 and chromogenic in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were positive in both tumors. Additionally, allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity displayed similar findings and confirmed the histopathological impression of anal SCC metastasis to the lung. The patient was treated with palliative chemotherapy instead of additional surgical treatment. When multiple tumors are present, determining metastatic versus synchronous primary tumors is necessary for appropriate treatment. Identification can be achieved using allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity.02/2014; 2014:608521. DOI:10.1155/2014/608521
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- "The sample was processed and detected for HPV-H and -L risk probes as described previously . "
ABSTRACT: p16(INK4) and RB1 are two potent cell cycle regulators to control the G1/S transition by interacting with CDK4/6, E2F, and D-type cyclins, respectively. Depending on the tumour type, genetic alterations resulting in the functional inactivation have frequently been reported in both genes. By contrast, much less is known regarding the overexpression of these proteins in the tumor cells. In this study, expressions of p16(INK4) RB1, and CDKN2A copy number variances (CNV) in the tumor cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively, in 73 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with known 5-year survivals. The histologic type (P = 0.01), p16(INK4) (P = 0.004), and RB1 (P < 0.001) were predictive of survivals. The CDKN2A CNV (P < 0.05) was also significant when compared to those cases without CNV. Therefore, among the molecular genetic prognostic factors, expressions of RB1 and p16(INK4) in the tumor cells were the most strongly predictive of adverse outcomes in stage I and II nonsquamous NSCLC.Journal of Oncology 04/2012; 2012:957437. DOI:10.1155/2012/957437