Real-time detection of transient cardiac ischemic episodes from ECG signals.
ABSTRACT We propose a new algorithm to detect and classify transient cardiac ischemia episodes, designed with the goal of providing a real-time execution without penalizing the classifier accuracy much. The algorithm is based on a novel mixture of time-domain analysis and machine learning techniques, specifically bagging of decision trees, and it has been developed using a well-recognized and freely distributed database, namely the long-term ST database. The ST episode detection sensitivity/positive predictivity using the annotation protocol A for this database is 68.26%/74.91%. The sensitivity result increases until 93.97% for the most dangerous episodes in terms of duration and magnitude (annotated according to protocol C). The test of the algorithm over the freely distributed part of the European Society of Cardiology database has shown results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of 83.33% and 77.31%, respectively. Those results are close to the results obtained by related works that present approaches to detect ischemia episodes off-line, which is remarkable if we take into account that in our real-time approach, less information is available during the classification process.
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ABSTRACT: An automated technique was developed for the detection of ischemic episodes in long duration electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings that employs an artificial neural network. In order to train the network for beat classification, a cardiac beat dataset was constructed based on recordings from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) ST-T database. The network was trained using a Bayesian regularisation method. The raw ECG signal containing the ST segment and the T wave of each beat were the inputs to the beat classification system and the output was the classification of the beat. The input to the network was produced through a principal component analysis (PCA) to achieve dimensionality reduction. The network performance in beat classification was tested on the cardiac beat database providing 90% sensitivity (Se) and 90% specificity (Sp). The neural beat classifier is integrated in a four-stage procedure for ischemic episode detection. The whole system was evaluated on the ESC ST-T database. When aggregate gross statistics was used the Se was 90% and the positive predictive accuracy (PPA) 89%. When aggregate average statistics was used the Se became 86% and the PPA 87%. These results are better than other reported.Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 03/2002; 24(2):167-78. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the current work we propose a methodology for the automated creation of fuzzy expert systems, applied in ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification. The proposed methodology automatically creates a fuzzy expert system from an initial training dataset. The approach consists of three stages: (a) extraction of a crisp set of rules from a decision tree induced from the training dataset, (b) transformation of the crisp set of rules into a fuzzy model and (c) optimization of the fuzzy model's parameters using global optimization. The above methodology is employed in order to create fuzzy expert systems for ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification in ECG recordings. The fuzzy expert system for ischaemic beat detection is evaluated in a cardiac beat dataset that was constructed using recordings from the European Society of Cardiology ST-T database. The arrhythmic beat classification fuzzy expert system is evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The fuzzy expert system for ischaemic beat classification reported 91% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The arrhythmic beat classification fuzzy expert system reported 96% average sensitivity and 99% average specificity for all categories. The proposed methodology provides high accuracy and the ability to interpret the decisions made. The fuzzy expert systems for ischaemic and arrhythmic beat classification compare well with previously reported results, indicating that they could be part of an overall clinical system for ECG analysis and diagnosis.Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 08/2007; 40(3):187-200. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The problem of maximizing the performance of the detection of ischemia episodes is a difficult pattern classification problem. The motivation for developing the supervising network self-organizing map (sNet-SOM) model is to exploit this fact for designing computationally effective solutions both for the particular ischemic detection problem and for other applications that share similar characteristics. Specifically, the sNet-SOM utilizes unsupervised learning for the “simple” regions and supervised for the “difficult” ones in a two stage learning process. The unsupervised learning approach extends and adapts the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm of Kohonen. The basic SOM is modified with a dynamic expansion process controlled with an entropy based criterion that allows the adaptive formation of the proper SOM structure. This extension proceeds until the total number of training patterns that are mapped to neurons with high entropy reduces to a size manageable numerically with a capable supervised model. The second learning phase has the objective of constructing better decision boundaries at the ambiguous regions. At this phase, a special supervised network is trained for the computationally reduced task of performing the classification at the ambiguous regions only. The utilization of sNet-SOM with supervised learning based on the radial basis functions and support vector machines has resulted in an improved accuracy of ischemia detection especially in the last case. The highly disciplined design of the generalization performance of the support vector machine allows designing the proper model for the number of patterns transferred to the supervised expertIEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 06/2001; · 2.95 Impact Factor