Increased programmed death-1+tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma substantiate reduced overall survival
ABSTRACT Programmed death-1 (PD-1), a protein that is physiologically expressed by germinal center-associated helper T cells, has an inhibitory function on T-cell activity. The distribution of PD-1+ lymphocytes in the microenvironment of Hodgkin lymphoma is not random and can serve as a diagnostic marker. We measured the number of PD-1+ lymphocytes in Hodgkin lymphoma and correlated it with the remaining background lymphocyte populations and known biological and clinical key data on a tissue microarray platform encompassing 280 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and 3 cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Prognostic cutoff scores were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The number of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 189 evaluable cases was median of 27 and mean of 269 cells/mm(2), being higher in lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma and lower in the mixed cellularity variant. Rimming of tumor cells by PD-1+ cells was observed in all cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma but only in 1% of classical Hodgkin lymphomas, particularly in lymphocyte-rich and -mixed cellularity variants. Thus, the presence of PD-1+ rosettes around neoplastic cells is typical but not exclusive for nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma because it may be encountered in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The PD-1+ cell amount was lower in classical Hodgkin lymphoma cases with 9p24 gains (PD-1 ligand 2 locus) and in cases with higher numbers of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. An increased amount of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes above the prognostic cutoff score (23 cells/mm(2)) was a stage-independent negative prognostic factor of overall survival as opposed to the number of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Along with the latter, PD-1+ cells might represent important lymphoma/host microenvironment modulators.
- SourceAvailable from: Evgeny Klyuchnikov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the favorable prognosis of most patients with Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL), 15-20% of patients remain refractory to chemoradiotherapy, and 20-40% experience relapses following autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) being used as salvage approach in this situation. Long-term survival of only 20% was reported for patients who failed this option. As some authors suggested the presence of a graft versus HL effect, allogeneic SCT was introduced as a further option. Myeloablative strategies were reported to be able to achieve cure in some younger patients, but high nonrelapse mortality remains a problem. Reduced intensity conditioning, in turn, was found to be associated with high posttransplant relapse rates. As there is currently no standard in the management of HL patients who failed autologous SCT, we here review the literature on allogeneic stem cell transplantation in HL patients with a special focus on the outcomes and risk factors being reported in the largest studies.Advances in Hematology 01/2011; 2011:974658. DOI:10.1155/2011/974658
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ABSTRACT: Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is expressed by germinal center-associated helper T-cells and acts as a negative regulator of the immune system. PD-1 is encountered on tumor cells of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and is a postulated diagnostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/SLL). Recent data suggest prognostic importance of PD-1 in follicular lymphoma (FL). We assessed the diagnostic potential and the prognostic importance of PD-1 in B-cell lymphomas. Distribution of PD-1+ lymphocytes in B-cell lymphomas was studied on 403 cases. Correlation with known biologic and clinical key data was performed. Prognostic cut-off scores were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were numerous in extranodal marginal zone lymphomas and FL. Their amount decreased from FL grade 1 to grade 3 and to FL with transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. An increased amount of PD-1 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes above the prognostic cut-off score (> 2.8%) was a positive prognostic factor of disease-specific survival (DSS) in FL-patients. Five percent of the studied 66 CLL/SLL cases showed unequivocal PD-1 positivity of neoplastic cells. Increased number of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with significantly improved DSS in FL and may be useful to predict its heterogeneous clinical behavior. PD-1 has probably limited diagnostic value for primary histopathological CLL/SLL diagnostics.Disease markers 01/2010; 29(1):47-53. DOI:10.3233/DMA-2010-0725 · 2.17 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Generalized CORDIC for digital signal processing[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many fast signal processing algorithms are based on a geometric framework and efficient implementations of these algorithms often require the computation of elementary functions involving such operations as vector rotations and exponentials. The CORDIC (COordinate Rotation Digital Computer) algorithms are the natural candidates for these elementary operations and they lead to novel realizations in many promising algorithms such as the square-root normalized ladder algorithms. FFT and several well-known matrix algorithms for signal processing. The development of algorithms involving nonstationary processes and the limiting constraints of VLSI motivate the extension of the CORDIC concept in other directions. It can be applied not only to one-parameter groups but to other Lie groups as well, i.e., higher dimensional manifolds, leading to generalized CORDIC algorithms. The computation of special functions is some of the potential benefits. Several such generalizations will be discussed.Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE International Conference on ICASSP '82.; 06/1982