Increased programmed death-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in classical Hodgkin lymphoma substantiate reduced overall survival.
ABSTRACT Programmed death-1 (PD-1), a protein that is physiologically expressed by germinal center-associated helper T cells, has an inhibitory function on T-cell activity. The distribution of PD-1+ lymphocytes in the microenvironment of Hodgkin lymphoma is not random and can serve as a diagnostic marker. We measured the number of PD-1+ lymphocytes in Hodgkin lymphoma and correlated it with the remaining background lymphocyte populations and known biological and clinical key data on a tissue microarray platform encompassing 280 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and 3 cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Prognostic cutoff scores were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The number of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 189 evaluable cases was median of 27 and mean of 269 cells/mm(2), being higher in lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin lymphoma and lower in the mixed cellularity variant. Rimming of tumor cells by PD-1+ cells was observed in all cases of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma but only in 1% of classical Hodgkin lymphomas, particularly in lymphocyte-rich and -mixed cellularity variants. Thus, the presence of PD-1+ rosettes around neoplastic cells is typical but not exclusive for nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma because it may be encountered in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The PD-1+ cell amount was lower in classical Hodgkin lymphoma cases with 9p24 gains (PD-1 ligand 2 locus) and in cases with higher numbers of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. An increased amount of PD-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes above the prognostic cutoff score (23 cells/mm(2)) was a stage-independent negative prognostic factor of overall survival as opposed to the number of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Along with the latter, PD-1+ cells might represent important lymphoma/host microenvironment modulators.
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ABSTRACT: Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications.Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 6(1):e2014039.
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ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy remains an important tool for treatment of hematologic malignancies. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway has emerged as a mechanism of tumor evasion from the anti-tumor immune response. The recent development of anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies has offered a targeted approach to cancer therapy. Several agents are in various stages of development and have shown clinical responses across a broad spectrum of both solid and hematologic malignancies. The use of anti-PD-1 therapy in hematologic malignancies is limited but has demonstrated clinical responses in relapsed/refractory disease following multiple lines of therapy. PD-1 blockade may reduce relapse rates for patients who fail to obtain a complete remission prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplant. The role of the PD-1 pathway for tumor escape is reviewed. We explore the use of anti-PD-1 therapy in hematologic malignancies. The proposed mechanism of PD-1 blockade as a modulator of the innate and acquired immune response is considered. Finally, the challenges of anti-PD-1 therapy and the future direction of investigation in this area are reviewed.Blood Reviews 09/2014; · 5.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor immune evasion is a hallmark of cancer. The programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway has been suggested to play an important role in T cell tolerance and tumor immune escape. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 and the post-treatment outcome in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies from 139 patients with histological diagnosis of NPC treated with conventional chemoradiotherapy were studied. By using immunohistochemistry staining, expressions of PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte and PD-L1 on tumor tissue were detected. The staining results were evaluated with H-score. The correlation between PD-1/PD-L1 expression and clinical characteristics and post-treatment outcome were analyzed. PD-1(+) immune cell were present in 52 of these 139 tumors (37.4 %). PD-L1 expression was detected in 132 patients (95.0 %), which located on tumor tissue. High expression of PD-L1 (median H-score >35) in tumor tissue significantly correlated with a poor prognosis of disease-free survival (P = 0.009). Co-expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in NPC at diagnosis correlated with the poorest prognosis of disease-free survival (P = 0.038). PD-1/PD-L1 co-expression reflected the selective suppression of cytotoxic lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment and predicted recurrence and metastasis of NPC after conventional therapies. Blocking this pathway in patients with co-expression of PD-1/PD-L1 provides a potential therapy target for NPC.Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England). 03/2015; 32(3):501.