Embryoid bodies from mouse stem cells express oxytocin receptor, Oct-4 and DAZL.
ABSTRACT Oxytocin is a nine amino acid peptide involved in a wide spectrum of physiological functions; predominantly those concerning reproduction and differentiation are of interest. Oxytocin receptors are expressed at early developmental stages of mammals, suggesting that oxytocin might be involved in the determination of the germ stem cell line, at the very early stages of mammalian development. In this respect, the proximate aim of the present study was to confirm and further analyze the existence of oxytocin receptors at a very early level of cell commitment, that is, the determination of germ cells derived from embryoid bodies. To achieve our purpose we have cultured mouse embryonic stem cells under conditions inducing formation of embryoid bodies. In this work, ES cells were allowed to aggregate in a novel medium, "Stefanidis medium" from day 0 to day 14 until formed EBs. RNA was isolated from EBs and using RT-PCR we showed that EBs expressed Oct-4, OTR, OT, and DAZL. To demonstrate simultaneous expression immunocytochemistry was preformed, in which EBs showed strong immunoreactivity for both, OTR and DAZL molecular markers. We found that 35% of the cells displayed OTR, using flow cytometry. In addition, this novel medium showed to increase OTR mRNA. We propose, that at least in murine induced embryoid bodies there is simultaneous expression of oxytocin receptors and germ cell markers (DAZL) in many cells (expressing Oct-4). We thus conclude that, the oxytocin might indeed be a molecule playing a leading role in germ cell determination.
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ABSTRACT: Oxytocin (OXT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide composed of nine amino acids. The functions of OXT cover a variety of social and nonsocial activity/behaviors. Therapeutic effects of OXT on aberrant social behaviors are attracting more attention, such as social memory, attachment, sexual behavior, maternal behavior, aggression, pair bonding, and trust. The nonsocial behaviors/functions of brain OXT have also received renewed attention, which covers brain development, reproduction, sex, endocrine, immune regulation, learning and memory, pain perception, energy balance, and almost all the functions of peripheral organ systems. Coordinating with brain OXT, locally produced OXT also involves the central and peripheral actions of OXT. Disorders in OXT secretion and functions can cause a series of aberrant social behaviors, such as depression, autism, and schizophrenia as well as disturbance of nonsocial behaviors/functions, such as anorexia, obesity, lactation failure, osteoporosis, diabetes, and carcinogenesis. As more and more OXT functions are identified, it is essential to provide a general view of OXT functions in order to explore the therapeutic potentials of OXT. In this review, we will focus on roles of hypothalamic OXT on central and peripheral nonsocial functions.07/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/179272
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of gene expression of Oct-4 and DAZL, which are typical markers for stem cells, in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in women with normal FSH levels undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any clinical significance of such expression in ART. METHODS: Twenty one women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus--mature oocyte complexes were denuded separately and granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse-transcription--polymerase chain reaction analysis for Oct-4 and DAZL gene expression with G6PD gene as internal standard. RESULTS: G6PD and Oct-4 mRNA was detected in the granulosa cells in 47.6% (10/21). The median of Oct-4 mRNA/G6PD mRNA was 1.75 with intra-quarteral range from 0.10 to 98.21. The OCT-4 mRNA expression was statistically significantly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; when the Oct-4 mRNA expression was higher, then more than six oocytes were retrieved (p=0.037, Wilcoxon rank-sum). No detection of DAZL mRNA was found in granulosa cells. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between the levels of Oct-4 expression and FSH basal levels or estradiol peak levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction. No association was found between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells and ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Also, no influence on pregnancy was observed between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells or to its expression levels accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of OCT-4 mRNA, which is a typical stem cell marker and absence of expression of DAZL mRNA, which is a typical germ cell marker, suggest that a subpopulation of luteinized granulosa cells in healthy ovarian follicles (47.6%) consists of stem cells, which are not originated from primordial germ cells. Absence of Oct-4 gene expression in more than half of the cases means probably the end of the productive journey of these cells, towards the oocyte.Journal of Ovarian Research 11/2012; 5(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1757-2215-5-36 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a very important adult stem cell population with a multitude of potential applications in regenerative medicine. The thorough characterization of the bone marrow MSC (BM-MSC) population derived from the BALB/c species was essential, considering the significance of the murine model amongst animal models. In the present study, we examined the effect of gender, age, and in vitro culture on the basic properties (proliferation, differentiation, and immunosuppressive potential) of BM-MSCs. We found a decline in the progenitor frequencies from the BM of adult mice, lower MSC frequencies in all female donors, and an increase in the BM-MSC proliferation rate upon in vitro propagation. We also examined BM-MSCs for the expression of the 3 major embryonic stem cell transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog, as well as 2 mRNA binding proteins, coding region determinant binding protein/insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (Crd-bp/Imp1) and Deleted in azoospermia-like (Dazl), which are expressed in primitive stem cells, umbilical cord blood-hematopoietic stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells, respectively. Further, it has been reported that these 2 genes are critical for embryonic development. In this study, therefore, we report, for the first time, the expression of Crd-bp/Imp1 and Dazl in BM-MSCs. Dazl, Oct3/4, and Sox2 were detected in relatively low levels in contrast to Crd-bp/Imp1, its major target c-Myc, as well as Nanog, which were expressed redundantly, irrespective of sex, donor age, or in vitro passaging. These findings could further support the extrinsic theory of aging of the MSC population and the potential implication of embryonic genes in adult stem cell physiology.Stem cells and development 02/2011; 20(9):1549-61. DOI:10.1089/scd.2010.0280 · 4.20 Impact Factor