Visualization of anterior skull base defects with intraoperative cone-beam CT

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Head & Neck (Impact Factor: 2.64). 01/2009; 32(4):504-12. DOI: 10.1002/hed.21219
Source: PubMed


The role of cone-beam CT (CBCT) in demonstrating anterior skull base defects (ASBDs), differing in size and location, was investigated. The study was designed to describe the potential advantage of CBCT in the setting of an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak.
In all, 120 ASBD were evaluated in 5 cadaver heads. Orthogonal and oblique slices were reconstructed. Observer studies assessed the visibility of ASBD in each location as a function of defect size.
For 1-, 2-, and 4-mm defects, the percentage that were undetectable ranged from 20% to 33%, 0% to 14%, and 0% to 5%, respectively. Confident breach detection increased with defect size and was most challenging in the lateral lamella and cribriform. CBCT permitted confident detection of ASBD as small as about 2 mm in the fovea ethmoidalis and planum. Oblique views were found to be superior to orthogonal planes.
The ability to identify ASBD depended on the size and location of defect. Oblique viewing planes were optimal for ASBD visualization.

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Available from: Gil N Bachar, Oct 02, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A system for intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) surgical guidance is under development and translation to trials in head and neck surgery. The system provides 3D image updates on demand with sub-millimeter spatial resolution and soft-tissue visibility at low radiation dose, thus overcoming conventional limitations associated with preoperative imaging alone. A prototype mobile C-arm provides the imaging platform, which has been integrated with several novel subsystems for streamlined implementation in the OR, including: real-time tracking of surgical instruments and endoscopy (with automatic registration of image and world reference frames); fast 3D deformable image registration (a newly developed multi-scale Demons algorithm); 3D planning and definition of target and normal structures; and registration / visualization of intraoperative CBCT with the surgical plan, preoperative images, and endoscopic video. Quantitative evaluation of surgical performance demonstrates a significant advantage in achieving complete tumor excision in challenging sinus and skull base ablation tasks. The ability to visualize the surgical plan in the context of intraoperative image data delineating residual tumor and neighboring critical structures presents a significant advantage to surgical performance and evaluation of the surgical product. The system has been translated to a prospective trial involving 12 patients undergoing head and neck surgery - the first implementation of the research prototype in the clinical setting. The trial demonstrates the value of high-performance intraoperative D imaging and provides a valuable basis for human factors analysis and workflow studies that will greatly augment streamlined implementation of such systems in complex OR environments.
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