Benefits of oat beta-glucan and sucrose feedings on infection and macrophage antiviral resistance following exercise stress.
ABSTRACT Oat beta-glucan can counteract the exercise-induced increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in mice, which is at least partly mediated by its effects on lung macrophages. Substantial evidence in humans indicates that carbohydrate-containing sports drinks can offset the decreased immune function associated with stressful exercise. However, no studies in animals or humans have directly examined their effects on URTI using a controlled virus-challenge model. We examined the effects of sucrose feedings alone and in combination with oat beta-glucan on susceptibility to infection and on macrophage antiviral resistance in mice following stressful exercise. These effects were also examined in rested, nonimmunocompromised control mice. Mice were assigned to one of four groups: H(2)O (water), sucrose (S), oat beta-glucan (ObetaG), and sucrose + oat beta-glucan (S+ObetaG). ObetaG and S treatments consisted of a solution of 50% ObetaG and 6% sucrose, respectively, and were administered in drinking water for 10 consecutive days. Exercise consisted of a treadmill run to fatigue performed on three consecutive days. Mice were then intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and monitored for morbidity and mortality for 21 days. Additional mice were used to determine macrophage antiviral resistance. In the exercise experiment, S, ObetaG, and S+ObetaG all reduced morbidity (P < 0.05), while only S+ObetaG reduced mortality (P < 0.05). Macrophage antiviral resistance was also increased in S, ObetaG, and S+ObetaG treatments (P < 0.05). In resting controls, S and S+ObetaG reduced morbidity and mortality (P < 0.05) and showed a trend toward increased macrophage antiviral resistance. There was no significant additive effect of S and ObetaG in either control or exercised animals. These data extend our previous work on the benefits of oat beta-glucan to show that sucrose feedings have similar effects on susceptibility to respiratory infection and macrophage antiviral resistance in both resting controls and following exercise stress.
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ABSTRACT: This article presents an overview of the recent advances into the health promoting potentials of oat β‐glucan. Oat β‐glucan (OβG) consists mainly of the linear polysaccharide (1→3), (1→4)‐β‐D‐glucan and is often called β‐glucan. This soluble oat fiber is able to attenuate blood postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, to lower blood total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and to improve high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood lipid profiles as well as to maintain body weight. Thus, OβG intake is beneficial in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, OβG can stimulate immune functions by activating monocytes/macrophages and increasing the amounts of immunoglobulin, NK cells, killer T‐cells, and so on, which will improve resistance to cancer and infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as increase biological therapies and their prevention. All these health benefits of OβG may be explained by its physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, molecular weight) which can be affected by extraction methods and its behavior in gastrointestinal tract. Articles documenting these health benefits and effects are reviewed.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2012; 11(4). · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strenuous aerobic exercise is known to weaken the immune system, and while many nutritional supplements have been proposed to boost post-exercise immunity, few are known to be effective. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether 10 d of supplementation with a defined source of baker's yeast β-glucan (BG, Wellmune WGP®) could minimise post-exercise immunosuppression. Recreationally active men and women (n 60) completed two 10 d trial conditions using a cross-over design with a 7 d washout period: placebo (rice flour) and baker's yeast BG (250 mg/d of β-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) before a bout of cycling (49 ± 6 min) in a hot (38 ± 2°C), humid (45 ± 2 % relative humidity) environment. Blood was collected at baseline (before supplement), pre- (PRE), post- (POST) and 2 h (2H) post-exercise. Total and subset monocyte concentration was measured by four-colour flow cytometry. Plasma cytokine levels and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production were measured using separate multiplex assays. Total (CD14+) and pro-inflammatory monocyte concentrations (CD14+/CD16+) were significantly greater at POST and 2H (P < 0·05) with BG supplementation. BG supplementation boosted LPS-stimulated production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) at PRE and POST (P < 0·05). Plasma IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ concentrations were greater at 2H following BG supplementation. It appears that 10 d of supplementation with BG increased the potential of blood leucocytes for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ. The key findings of the present study demonstrate that BG may have potential to alter immunity following a strenuous exercise session.The British journal of nutrition 05/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oat β-glucan can counteract the increased risk for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in mice, the effects of which have, at least in part, been attributed to macrophages. However, the specific responses of macrophages to oat β-glucan treatment in this model have yet to be elucidated. We examined the effects of varying doses of oat β-glucan on the pro-inflammatory cytokine response in both peritoneal and lung macrophages with and without exposure to HSV-1 infection in vitro. Peritoneal and lung macrophages were obtained from mice and cultured with varying concentrations of oat β-glucan (0 (control), 10, 100, and 1,000 μg) for 24 h and supernatants were collected. A standardized dose of HSV-1 was added for a second 24 h incubation period after which supernatants were again collected. Samples were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In most cases, oat β-glucan resulted in a dose-dependent increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) in lung and peritoneal macrophages with and without exposure to HSV-1 infection. When comparing across macrophage source, this response was greater for IL-1β and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages and for TNF-α in lung macrophages. This may be a mechanism for the decreased risk for HSV-1 infection following oat β-glucan feedings in mice.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 07/2012; 32(8):362-7. · 1.63 Impact Factor