Benefits of oat b-glucan and sucrose feedings on infection and macrophage antiviral resistance following exercise stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297(4):R1188-R1194
Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
(Impact Factor: 3.11).
08/2009; 297(4):R1188-94. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00396.2009
Oat beta-glucan can counteract the exercise-induced increased risk for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in mice, which is at least partly mediated by its effects on lung macrophages. Substantial evidence in humans indicates that carbohydrate-containing sports drinks can offset the decreased immune function associated with stressful exercise. However, no studies in animals or humans have directly examined their effects on URTI using a controlled virus-challenge model. We examined the effects of sucrose feedings alone and in combination with oat beta-glucan on susceptibility to infection and on macrophage antiviral resistance in mice following stressful exercise. These effects were also examined in rested, nonimmunocompromised control mice. Mice were assigned to one of four groups: H(2)O (water), sucrose (S), oat beta-glucan (ObetaG), and sucrose + oat beta-glucan (S+ObetaG). ObetaG and S treatments consisted of a solution of 50% ObetaG and 6% sucrose, respectively, and were administered in drinking water for 10 consecutive days. Exercise consisted of a treadmill run to fatigue performed on three consecutive days. Mice were then intranasally inoculated with a standardized dose of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and monitored for morbidity and mortality for 21 days. Additional mice were used to determine macrophage antiviral resistance. In the exercise experiment, S, ObetaG, and S+ObetaG all reduced morbidity (P < 0.05), while only S+ObetaG reduced mortality (P < 0.05). Macrophage antiviral resistance was also increased in S, ObetaG, and S+ObetaG treatments (P < 0.05). In resting controls, S and S+ObetaG reduced morbidity and mortality (P < 0.05) and showed a trend toward increased macrophage antiviral resistance. There was no significant additive effect of S and ObetaG in either control or exercised animals. These data extend our previous work on the benefits of oat beta-glucan to show that sucrose feedings have similar effects on susceptibility to respiratory infection and macrophage antiviral resistance in both resting controls and following exercise stress.
Available from: Jane Ramberg
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ABSTRACT: A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides.
Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition.
We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated.
Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor mushroom improved survival and immune function in human RCTs of cancer patients; glucans, arabinogalactans and fucoidans elicited immunomodulatory effects in controlled studies of healthy adults and patients with canker sores and seasonal allergies. This review provides a foundation that can serve to guide future research on immune modulation by well-characterized polysaccharide compounds.
Nutrition Journal 11/2010; 9(1):54. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-9-54 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the recent scientific literature on the immune modulating effects of β-glucans and subsequent benefits on infection and cancer.
β-Glucans have been investigated for their ability to protect against infection and cancer and more recently for their therapeutic potential when combined with cancer therapy. Their immune modulating effects are attributed to the ability to bind to pattern recognition receptors including complement receptor 3, scavenger receptors, lactosylceramide, and dectin-1 that results in activation of different aspects of the immune response depending on the cell types and species involved although there is some controversy about the relative importance of each of these receptors. Most of the available evidence comes from preclinical data and human studies are just now beginning to appear in the literature, therefore firm conclusions on its clinical importance cannot yet be made. Perhaps the most promising evidence to date in human trials has come from recent studies on a benefit of β-glucan on quality of life and survival when given in combination with cancer treatment. We identify the need for future studies that compare purified forms of β-glucans from different sources to further the understanding of the mechanisms of action and aid in the development of clinical studies.
β-Glucans appear to be effective at enhancing immune function and reducing susceptibility to infection and cancer. A better understanding of the mechanisms of β-glucan recognition and subsequent immune activation is necessary for the design of effective treatment approaches in future clinical trials.
11/2010; 13(6):656-61. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833f1afb
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ABSTRACT: Excessive and exhausting physical loads depress the immune system. Carbohydrate consumption may minimize the postexercise suppression of the innate immune system. β-Glucan is a well-known immunomodulator, with positive effects on the functioning of immunocompetent cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether β-glucan dietary supplementation from the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus decreases the suppressed immune system responses induced by short-term high-intensity exercise in humans. In this double-blind pilot study, 20 elite athletes were randomized to β-glucan (n = 9) or placebo (n = 11) groups; these groups consumed 100 mg of β-glucan (Imunoglukan) or placebo supplements, respectively, once a day for 2 months. Venous whole blood was collected before and after 2 months of supplementation (baseline), both immediately and 1 h after (recovery period) a 20-min intensive exercise bout at the end of the supplementation period. The blood samples were used to measure the cell counts of leukocytes, erythrocyte, and lymphocytes; subpopulations of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes; and natural killer (NK) cell activity (NKCA). A 28% reduction in NKCA (p < 0.01) below the baseline value was observed in the placebo group during the recovery period, whereas no significant reduction in NKCA was found in the β-glucan group. In addition, no significant decrease in NK cell count was measured in the β-glucan group during the recovery period. Immune cell counts did not differ significantly between the groups. These results indicate that insoluble β-glucan supplementation from P. ostreatus may play a role in modulating exercise-induced changes in NKCA in intensively training athletes.
Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 12/2010; 35(6):755-62. DOI:10.1139/H10-070 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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