Short-term prognosis of contemporary interventional therapy of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: does gender matter?
ABSTRACT A higher mortality risk for women with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been a common finding in the past, even after acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We set out to analyze whether there are gender differences in real-world contemporary treatment and outcomes of STEMI.
A retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with STEMI and acute coronary angiography with the intention of performing a PCI at our center 6/1999-6/2006 was carried out (n = 566). Data were examined for gender-specific differences regarding patients' characteristics, referral patterns, timing of acute symptoms, angiographic findings, procedural details, and adverse events at 30 days after PCI.
Women (n = 161) were on average 8 years older than men (n = 405), had higher co-morbidity, were more often transported to the hospital by ambulance and presented less often to the emergency room on their own (4.2% vs. 12.6% in men, P = 0.02). The pre-hospital delay from symptom onset to admission was significantly longer for women (median 185 vs. 135 min, P < 0.02). There was no gender difference in time from admission to PCI (median 46 min vs. 48 min, P = 0.42). Both genders received PCI with similar frequency (88.8% vs. 92.4%, P = 0.19), with similar success rates (83.2% vs. 85.3%, P = 0.68). Thirty-day overall mortality for women was not significantly higher than for men (8.7% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.6). Re-infarction or stroke within 30 days were rare for both genders without gender-specific differences whereas bleeding necessitating blood replacement was significantly more frequent in women (16.8% vs. 5.9%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, female gender was not independently associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.964, P = 0.93).
Women underwent PCI therapy for STEMI with the same frequency and the same angiographic success as men. Despite their more advanced age and the higher prevalence of co-morbidities, they did not have a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate than men. Female gender was not an independent risk factor of 30-day mortality. Longer pre-hospital delays before hospital admission in women indicate that awareness of risk from coronary artery disease should be further raised in women.
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ABSTRACT: Women receive less evidence-based medical care than men and have higher rates of death after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It is unclear whether efforts undertaken to improve AMI care have mitigated these sex disparities in the current era. Using the Get With the Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease database, we examined sex differences in care processes and in-hospital death among 78 254 patients with AMI in 420 US hospitals from 2001 to 2006. Women were older, had more comorbidities, less often presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and had higher unadjusted in-hospital death (8.2% versus 5.7%; P<0.0001) than men. After multivariable adjustment, sex differences in in-hospital mortality rates were no longer observed in the overall AMI cohort (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.04; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.10) but persisted among STEMI patients (10.2% versus 5.5%; P<0.0001; adjusted OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.23). Compared with men, women were less likely to receive early aspirin treatment (adjusted OR=0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.90), early beta-blocker treatment (adjusted OR=0.90; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93), reperfusion therapy (adjusted OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.80), or timely reperfusion (door-to-needle time </=30 minutes: adjusted OR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.92; door-to-balloon time </=90 minutes: adjusted OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95). Women also experienced lower use of cardiac catheterization and revascularization procedures after AMI. Overall, no sex differences in in-hospital mortality rates after AMI were observed after multivariable adjustment. However, women with STEMI had higher adjusted mortality rates than men. The underuse of evidence-based treatments and delayed reperfusion among women represent potential opportunities for reducing sex disparities in care and outcome after AMI.Circulation 01/2009; 118(25):2803-10. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are less aggressively managed than are men. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in medical and invasive coronary procedures (angiography, PTCA, and CABG) in AMI patients admitted to cardiac care units (CCUs) in Israel in the mid 1990s and their association with early and 1-year prognosis. We studied 2867 consecutive AMI patients (2125 men, 74%) hospitalized in all 25 CCUs in Israel from 3 prospective nationwide surveys conducted in 1992, 1994, and 1996. Women were, on average, older than men (69 versus 61 years, P:<0.0001) and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, Killip class >/=II on admission, and in-hospital complications. Women received aspirin and beta-blockers less often than did men, but these differences were not significant after age adjustment. The unadjusted rates of thrombolysis, angiography, and PTCA/CABG use were lower in women than in men but not after covariate adjustment: 42% versus 48% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.11), 23% versus 31% (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.09), and 15% versus 19% (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.19), respectively. The 30-day mortality was higher in women than in men (17.6% versus 9.6%, respectively; OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.82), but the 30-day to 1-year mortality rate was not (9.1% versus 5.6%, respectively; hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.66). This prospective nationwide observational community-based study of consecutive AMI patients hospitalized in the CCUs in the mid 1990s indicates that women fare significantly worse than do men at 30 days but not thereafter at 1-year. The difference in 30-day outcome was not influenced by the use of different therapeutic modalities, including thrombolysis and invasive coronary procedures, but was rather due to the older age and greater comorbidity of women; these findings seem also to explain the less frequent use of invasive procedures in women.Circulation 11/2000; 102(20):2484-90. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are beneficial in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS); their safe use in women, however, remains a concern. The contribution of dosing to the observed sex-related differences in bleeding is unknown. We explored the relationship between patient sex, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use, dose, and bleeding in 32 601 patients with NSTE ACS across 400 CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the ACC/AHA guidelines) hospitals, of whom 18 436 were treated. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor dose was defined as excessive if not reduced when creatinine clearance was < 50 mL/min for eptifibatide or < 30 mL/min for tirofiban. Major bleeding was defined as a hematocrit drop > or = 0.12, need for transfusion, or intracranial bleeding. Major bleeding was adjusted for clinical factors and antithrombotic dose. The risk for bleeding attributable to excess GP IIb/IIIa dose was determined by sex using prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Women had higher rates of major bleeding than men among those treated with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (15.7% versus 7.3%, P<0.0001) and among those not treated (8.5% versus 5.4%, P<0.0001). Despite similar serum creatinine levels, creatinine clearance averaged 20 points lower among treated women than men. Treated women were also more likely to receive excess GP IIb/IIIa doses than men (46.4% versus 17.2%, P<0.0001; adjusted OR 3.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.39 to 4.27). Excess dosing was associated with increased risk of bleeding in women (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.28) and men (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.66); however, bleeding risk attributable to dosing was much higher in women (25.0% versus 4.4%). Women experience more bleeding than men whether or not they are treated with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors; however, because of frequent excessive dosing in women, up to one fourth of this sex-related risk difference in bleeding is avoidable. Appropriate dosing will improve care of all patients with NSTE ACS, with a particular benefit for women.Circulation 10/2006; 114(13):1380-7. · 15.20 Impact Factor