Risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK
Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice
(Impact Factor: 1.09).
09/2009; 50(8):406-14. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00756.x
Previous studies of cats in the USA and New Zealand have identified a number of risk factors for the development of hyperthyroidism including feeding of canned cat food and being non-purebred. The objective of this study was to examine these and other risk factors in cats from London, UK.
A questionnaire-based case-control study of hyperthyroidism in cats greater than eight years of age was undertaken. Cases and controls were recruited from two groups of first opinion clinics in London, UK (five locations in total). The two-page questionnaire investigated details of lifestyle, diet and exposure to environmental chemicals. Data analysis included multivariable analysis of risk factors using binary logistic regression.
One hundred and nine hyperthyroid cats and 196 control cats were surveyed. Increasing age, non-pure breed, use of a litter box, more than 50 per cent wet food in the diet, a diet that included fish and exposure to food in a can were identified as risk factors for the development of hyperthyroidism using multivariable analysis.
Risk factors for hyperthyroidism in cats from the UK appear similar to those of other countries. Exposure to food packaged in a can was identified as the major risk factor for the development of hyperthyroidism.
Available from: Johan P Schoeman
- "Several substantial epidemiological studies from the United States of America, UK, Hong Kong and New Zealand have revealed some contradictory results (De Wet et al. 2009; Edinboro, Scott-Moncrieff, Janovitz, Thacker & Glickman 2004; Kass et al. 1999; Martin et al. 2000; Olczak et al.2005; Scarlett et al. 1998; Wakeling et al. 2009). These include an increased risk in indoor cats, female cats, cats in multi-cat households, cats with dental disease (independent of age), use of topical flea preparations and pesticides, use of cat litter (not linked to increased risk in indoor cats), consumption of certain flavours of canned foods (fish or liver and giblet flavour) and in non-purebred cats. "
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ABSTRACT: Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s) of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 02/2014; 85(1):1-6. DOI:10.4102/jsava.v85i1.1097 · 0.35 Impact Factor
Available from: Mark E. Peterson
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 08/1984; 14(4):809-26. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ARTICLE RATIONALE: Since the late 1970s, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism (FH). It is now recognized worldwide as the most common endocrinopathy of older cats, resembling toxic nodular goiter of older humans in iodine-deficient areas. The purpose of this article is to identify the potential for iodine concentrations in the diet to contribute to the etiology of FH. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: Iodine concentrations of commercial cat foods vary widely. A review of historical iodine recommendations revealed that the units of iodine supplementation changed in the 1970s. Given this change, foods minimally supplemented since the late 1970s would have been iodine deficient for most cats. PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Iodine supplementation of commercial cat foods should be evaluated in the light of the iodine recommendations revised in 2006. Foods may remain deficient in iodine if supplemented at the minimum recommended concentration, possibly contributing to the development of FH.
09/2010; 12(9):672-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jfms.2010.07.011
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