Tyrosine kinase inhibitors - a review on pharmacology, metabolism and side effects.
ABSTRACT Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are effective in the targeted treatment of various malignancies. Imatinib was the first to be introduced into clinical oncology, and it was followed by drugs such as gefitinib, erlotinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and dasatinib. Although they share the same mechanism of action, namely competitive ATP inhibition at the catalytic binding site of tyrosine kinase, they differ from each other in the spectrum of targeted kinases, their pharmacokinetics as well as substance-specific adverse effects. With variations from drug to drug, tyrosine kinase inhibitors cause skin toxicity, including folliculitis, in more than 50% of patients. Among the tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are commercially available as yet, the agents that target EGFR, erlotinib and gefitinib, display the broadest spectrum of adverse effects on skin and hair, including folliculitis, paronychia, facial hair growth, facial erythema, and varying forms of frontal alopecia. In contrast, folliculitis is not common during administration of sorafenib and sunitinib, which target VEGFR, PDGFR, FLT3, and others, whereas both agents have been associated with subungual splinter hemorrhages. Periorbital edema is a common adverse effect of imatinib. Besides the haematological side effects of most of TKIs like anemia, thrombopenia and neutropenia, the most common extra-heamatologic adverse effects are edema, nausea, hypothyroidism, vomiting and diarrhea. Regarding possible long term effects, recently cardiac toxicity with congestive heart failure is under debate in patients receiving imatinib and sunitinib therapy; however, this observation was probably relate to patients selection, although, TKIs overall appear to be a very well tolerated drug class.
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the uptake of many drugs by the target cells may dramatically affect the pharmacological response. Thus, downregulation of SLC22A1, which encodes the organic cation transporter type 1 (OCT1), may affect the response of healthy hepatocytes and liver cancer cells to cationic drugs, such as metformin and sorafenib, respectively. Moreover, the overall picture may be modified to a considerable extent by the preexistence or the appearance during the pathogenic process of genetic variants. Some rare OCT1 variants enhance transport activity, whereas other more frequent variants impair protein maturation, plasma membrane targeting or the function of this carrier, hence reducing intracellular active drug concentrations. Here, we review current knowledge of the role of OCT1 in modern liver pharmacology, which includes the use of cationic drugs to treat several diseases, some of them of great clinical relevance such as diabetes and primary liver cancer (cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma). We conclude that modern pharmacology must consider the individual evaluation of OCT1 expression/function in the healthy liver and in the target tissue, particularly if this is a tumor, in order to predict the lack of response to cationic drugs and to be able to design individualized pharmacological treatments with the highest chances of success.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:692071.
- Scientific Reports 03/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anticancer agents that have minimal effects on normal cells and tissues are ideal cancer drugs. Here, we show specific inhibition of human cancer cells carrying oncogenic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene by means of oncogenic allele-specific RNA interference (RNAi), both in vivo and in vitro. The allele-specific RNAi (ASP-RNAi) treatment did not affect normal cells or tissues that had no target oncogenic allele, whereas the suppression of a normal EGFR allele by a conventional in vivo RNAi caused adverse effects, i.e., normal EGFR is vital. Taken together, our current findings suggest that specific inhibition of oncogenic EGFR alleles without affecting the normal EGFR allele may provide a safe treatment approach for cancer patients and that ASP-RNAi treatment may be capable of becoming a safe and effective, anticancer treatment method.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e73214. · 3.73 Impact Factor