beta1 integrin maintains integrity of the embryonic neocortical stem cell niche.

Center for Neuroscience, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, D.C., United States of America.
PLoS Biology (Impact Factor: 11.77). 09/2009; 7(8):e1000176. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000176
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During embryogenesis, the neural stem cells (NSC) of the developing cerebral cortex are located in the ventricular zone (VZ) lining the cerebral ventricles. They exhibit apical and basal processes that contact the ventricular surface and the pial basement membrane, respectively. This unique architecture is important for VZ physical integrity and fate determination of NSC daughter cells. In addition, the shorter apical process is critical for interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), which enables VZ cell mitoses at the ventricular surface. Despite their importance, the mechanisms required for NSC adhesion to the ventricle are poorly understood. We have shown previously that one class of candidate adhesion molecules, laminins, are present in the ventricular region and that their integrin receptors are expressed by NSC. However, prior studies only demonstrate a role for their interaction in the attachment of the basal process to the overlying pial basement membrane. Here we use antibody-blocking and genetic experiments to reveal an additional and novel requirement for laminin/integrin interactions in apical process adhesion and NSC regulation. Transient abrogation of integrin binding and signalling using blocking antibodies to specifically target the ventricular region in utero results in abnormal INM and alterations in the orientation of NSC divisions. We found that these defects were also observed in laminin alpha2 deficient mice. More detailed analyses using a multidisciplinary approach to analyse stem cell behaviour by expression of fluorescent transgenes and multiphoton time-lapse imaging revealed that the transient embryonic disruption of laminin/integrin signalling at the VZ surface resulted in apical process detachment from the ventricular surface, dystrophic radial glia fibers, and substantial layering defects in the postnatal neocortex. Collectively, these data reveal novel roles for the laminin/integrin interaction in anchoring embryonic NSCs to the ventricular surface and maintaining the physical integrity of the neocortical niche, with even transient perturbations resulting in long-lasting cortical defects.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During mammalian corticogenesis, the dorsal telencephalon is patterned through secreted molecules and transcription factors. Expression of the transcription factor Pax6 demarcates the dorsal telencephalon, thereby patterning the future cortical primordium. Pax6 is also crucial in neurogenesis in the developing cortex through its role in balancing proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). In this chapter, we address the role of Pax6 and its downstream molecules in cortical development and evolution. We also note the possible involvement of Pax6 in the onset of neurodevelopmental diseases.
    Cortical Development, Edited by Tstusuo Yamamori, Ryoichiro Kageyama, 07/2013: chapter 3: pages 43-61; Springer., ISBN: 978-4-431-54496-8
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells (NSCs) derive from the neuroepithelium of the neural tube, develop into radial glial cells, and recede at later developmental stages. In the adult, late descendants of these embryonic NSCs reside in discretely confined areas of the central nervous system, the stem cell niches. The best accepted canonical niches are the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Stem cell niches provide a privileged environment to NSCs that supports self-renewal and maintenance of this cellular compartment. While numerous studies have highlighted the importance of transcription factors, morphogens, cytokines, and growth factors as intrinsic and extrinsic factors of stem cell regulation, less attention has been paid to the molecular micromilieu that characterizes the stem cell niches. In this chapter, we summarize increasing evidence that the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the stem cell environment is of crucial importance for the biology of this cellular compartment. A deeper understanding of the molecular composition of the ECM, the complementary receptors, and the signal transduction pathways engaged may prove highly relevant for harnessing NSCs in the context of biotechnological applications.
    Progress in brain research 01/2014; 214:3-28. · 4.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109388. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014