Neural Correlates of Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Review of Hypotheses

Faculty of Medicine, Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Journal of child neurology (Impact Factor: 1.72). 09/2009; 24(10):1273-81. DOI: 10.1177/0883073809333537
Source: PubMed


Affecting 5% to 6% of school-age children, developmental coordination disorder is characterized by a marked impairment of motor coordination that significantly interferes with activities of daily living and academic achievement. Little is known about the etiology of developmental coordination disorder, but the disorder often coexists with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), speech/language impairment, and/or reading disability. This comprehensive review examines the literature supporting or refuting hypothesized neural correlates of developmental coordination disorder and suggests directions for future research. Potential sources of neuropathology include the cerebellum, parietal lobe, corpus callosum, and basal ganglia. Comorbidities and deficits associated with developmental coordination disorder are highly suggestive of cerebellar dysfunction; yet, given the heterogeneity of this disorder, it is likely that the cerebellum is not the only neural correlate. Neuroimaging studies and behavioral investigations of learning-related change in motor behavior are the next critical step in enhancing our understanding of developmental coordination disorder.

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Available from: Cheryl Missiuna, Feb 09, 2015
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    • "More recently, deficits in imitation ability (Dewey 1993; Elbasan et al. 2012; Goyen et al. 2011; Sinani et al. 2011; Zoia et al. 2002) have been highlighted. The etiology of DCD is currently unknown but it is generally thought to be related to a deficit in the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) (APA 2013; Flouris et al. 2005; Steinman et al. 2010; Zwicker et al. 2009). A relatively new neural model to be implicated in DCD relates to a potential deficit in the functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) (Licari et al. 2015; Reynolds et al., in press; Steinman et al. 2010; Werner et al. 2012), a fronto-parietal network of brain regions playing an integrative role in imitation of motor skills. "

    International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 12/2015; 47(Part B):309–319. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.10.003 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    • "The study has indicated that the key areas of concern raised by our participants are those that would be traditionally associated with deficits in executive functioning, for instance planning and organisation (Zwicker et al., 2009). This is in line with previous evidence that has highlighted executive functioning as an area of concern in Figure 2. Mean MABC-2 percentiles for the three sub-tests (manual dexterity; aiming and catching and static and dynamic balance) and mean overall percentile. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has attempted to recognise the pervasiveness of developmental coordination disorder across the lifespan. However, it falls short at describing the non-motoric symptomology such as executive functioning, social, emotional and psychiatric difficulties commonly reported in adults. Consequently, at the point of entry the self-reported functional difficulties of an adult with developmental coordination disorder may not be immediately associated with an underlying deficit within a motor domain, potentially resulting in inappropriate referrals.
    05/2015; 78(5):295-302. DOI:10.1177/0308022614565113
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    • "lum have been identified as working together for predicting the sensory consequences of movement and in monitoring and correcting movement ( Wolpert et al . , 1998 ; Kawato et al . , 2003 ) . Studies using fMRI showed under - activation of the cerebellum and parietal regions in children with DCD relative to TD children ( Kashiwagi et al . , 2009 ; Zwicker et al . , 2009 ) . The cerebellum is essential for online corrections of smooth pursuit since it constructs internal models that control movement output in relation to input from both internal forward predictions and senso - rimotor feedback ( Tseng et al . , 2007 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine how feedback, or its absence, affects children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) during a visuo-manual tracking task. This cross-sectional study included 40 children with DCD and 40 typically developing (TD) children between six and ten years old. Participants were required to track a target moving along a circular path presented on a monitor by moving an electronic pen on a digitizing tablet. The task was performed under two visibility conditions (target visible throughout the trajectory and target intermittently occluded) and at two different target velocities (30° and 60° per second). Variables reflecting tracking success and tracking behaviour within the target were compared between groups. Results showed that children with DCD were less proficient in tracking a moving target than TD children. Their performance deteriorated even more when the target was occluded and when the target speed increased. The mean tracking speed of the DCD group exceeded the speed at which the target rotated which was attributed to accelerations and decelerations made during tracking. This suggests that children with DCD have significant difficulties in visuo-manual tracking especially when visual feedback is reduced. It appears that their impaired ability to predict together with impairments in fine-tuning arm movements may be responsible for poor performance in the intermittently occluded visuo-manual tracking task. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Neuroscience 11/2014; 286. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.11.032 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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