Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Lymphoma Patients
ABSTRACT Lymphoma patients commonly experience declines in physical functioning and quality of life (QoL) that may be reversed with exercise training.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, between 2005 and 2008 that stratified 122 lymphoma patients by major disease type and current treatment status and randomly assigned them to usual care (UC; n = 62) or 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise training (AET; n = 60). Our primary end point was patient-rated physical functioning assessed by the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia. Secondary end points were overall QoL, psychosocial functioning, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition.
Follow-up assessment for our primary end point was 96% (117 of 122) at postintervention and 90% (110 of 122) at 6-month follow-up. Median adherence to the supervised exercise program was 92%. At postintervention, AET was superior to UC for patient-rated physical functioning (mean group difference, +9.0; 95% CI, 2.0 to 16.0; P = .012), overall QoL (P = .021), fatigue (P = .013), happiness (P = .004), depression (P = .005), general health (P < .001), cardiovascular fitness (P < .001), and lean body mass (P = .008). Change in peak cardiovascular fitness mediated the change in patient-rated physical functioning. AET did not interfere with chemotherapy completion rate or treatment response. At 6-month follow-up, AET was still borderline or significantly superior to UC for overall QoL (P = .054), happiness (P = .034), and depression (P = .009) without an increased risk of disease recurrence/progression.
AET significantly improved important patient-rated outcomes and objective physical functioning in lymphoma patients without interfering with medical treatments or response. Exercise training to improve cardiovascular fitness should be considered in the management of lymphoma patients.
SourceAvailable from: Katja I Braam[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two sessions for parents. This program was part of a combined intervention with physical exercise. Questionnaires are used to evaluate completion of the psychosocial intervention, coping and satisfaction with the psychosocial intervention by patients and psychologists, and ranking of the individual topics by patients, parents, and psychologists. Of the 30 patients (mean age 13.0 (SD 3.0); 53.3 % male; 30 % still on treatment) who participated in the psychosocial intervention, two dropped out due to medical complications and one due to lack of time; 90 % completed the psychosocial intervention. Overall, patients liked participation in the intervention (4.2 on a 5-point scale; SD 0.8) and were positive about the psychologists (8.1 on a 10-point scale; SD 1.3). Psychologists rated the intervention on several points (e.g., clarity of the manual and content of the intervention), and mean scores ranged from 7.1 (SD 1.1) to 8.6 (SD 0.9) on 10-point scales. Minor adaptations were suggested by patients and psychologists, including customizing according to age and a more patient-tailored approach. This psychosocial intervention for childhood cancer patients appears to be applicable. Future studies need to establish whether this intervention combined with a physical exercise intervention actually improves psychosocial functioning of childhood cancer patients. When proven effective, this combined intervention can be offered to childhood cancer patients and may enhance their physical health and quality of life.Supportive Care Cancer 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2576-6 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this single-arm pilot study was to examine the effects of a community-based multimodal exercise program on: physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG], 6-min walk test [6MWT], leg and chest press strength, and functional reach [FR]); and quality of life, QoL [FACT-G]), in cancer survivors. Fifty-nine cancer survivors (91.5% female; mean age 59 ± 12 years) completed supervised exercise training for 90 min twice weekly for 12 weeks. Exercise training consisted of 30 min of each of the following: (1) aerobic conditioning; (2) resistance training; and (3) balance and flexibility training. Pre-post-outcome measures were compared for statistically significant differences (p < 0.01) and were related to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model. Effect sizes (ES), minimal clinically important differences, and minimal detectable change at 90% confidence intervals were calculated. Participants decreased TUG time by 21.1% and walked 15.5% farther during 6-MWT (p < 0.001). Leg and chest press strength increased by 34.5% and 32.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). FR increased by 15.1% (p < 0.001). Significant improvements for physical well-being (13.9%), emotional well-being (6.7%), functional well-being (13.0%), and total well-being (9.6%) were found (p < 0.01). Improvements in physical function and QoL showed "moderate to large" ESs indicating improvements in physical function and QoL are clinically meaningful.Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/09593985.2015.1004390
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ABSTRACT: Background Cancer cachexia is a multi-factorial syndrome characterised by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass, with or without a loss of fat mass, which leads to progressive functional impairment. Physical exercise may attenuate the effects of cancer cachexia via several mechanisms, including the modulation of muscle metabolism, insulin sensitivity and levels of inflammation. Objectives The primary objective was to determine the effects of exercise, compared to usual care or no treatment, on lean body mass, the main biomarker of cachexia, in adults with cancer. Secondary objectives, subject to the availability of data, were to examine the acceptability and safety of exercise in this setting and to compare effects according to the characteristics of the exercise intervention or patient population. Search methods We searched the databases CENTRAL (Issue 6, 2014) , MEDLINE (1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (1974 to June 2014), DARE and HTA (Issue 6, 2014), ISI Web of Science (1900 to June 2014), LILACS (1985 to 28 June 2014), PEDro (inception to 28 June 2014), SciVerse SCOPUS (inception to 28 June 2014), Biosis Previews PreMEDLINE (1969 to June 2014) and Open Grey (inception to 28 June 2014). We also searched for ongoing studies, checked reference lists and contacted experts to seek potentially relevant research. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults meeting the clinical criteria for cancer cachexia comparing a programme of exercise as a sole or adjunct intervention to no treatment or an active control. We imposed no language restriction. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of articles for relevance and extracted data on study design, participants, interventions and outcomes from potentially relevant articles. Main results We screened 3154 individual references, of which we removed 3138 after title screening and read 16 in full. We found no trials that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence to determine the safety and effectiveness of exercise for patients with cancer cachexia. Randomised controlled trials (i.e., preferably parallel-group or cluster-randomised trials) are required to test the effectiveness of exercise in this group. There are ongoing studies on the topic, so we will update this review to incorporate the findings.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 11/2014; 11. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD010804.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor