Augmented TLR9-induced Btk activation in PIR-B–deficient B-1 cells provokes excessive autoantibody production and autoimmunity
ABSTRACT Pathogens are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed in leukocytes in the innate immune system. However, excess stimulation of TLR pathways is supposed to be connected with provocation of autoimmunity. We show that paired immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor B (PIR-B), an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-harboring receptor for major histocompatibility class I molecules, on relatively primitive B cells, B-1 cells, suppresses TLR9 signaling via Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) dephosphorylation, which leads to attenuated activation of nuclear factor kappaB p65RelA but not p38 or Erk, and blocks the production of natural IgM antibodies, including anti-IgG Fc autoantibodies, particularly rheumatoid factor. The autoantibody production in PIR-B-deficient (Pirb(-/-)) mice was further augmented in combination with the Fas(lpr) mutation, which might be linked to the development of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. These results show the critical link between TLR9-mediated sensing and a simultaneously evoked, PIR-B-mediated inhibitory circuit with a Btk intersection in B-1 cells, and suggest a novel way toward preventing pathogenic natural autoantibody production.
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ABSTRACT: Transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitors are at high risk of invasive fungal infection. Understanding how calcineurin inhibitors impair fungal immunity is a key priority for defining risk of infection. Here, we show that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus impairs clearance of the major mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus from the airway, by inhibiting macrophage inflammatory responses. This leads to defective early neutrophil recruitment and fungal clearance. We confirm these findings in zebrafish, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for calcineurin signalling in neutrophil recruitment during inflammation. We find that calcineurin–NFAT activation is phagocytosis dependent and collaborates with NF-κB for TNF-α production. For yeast zymosan particles, activation of macrophage calcineurin–NFAT occurs via the phagocytic Dectin-1–spleen tyrosine kinase pathway, but for A. fumigatus, activation occurs via a phagosomal TLR9-dependent and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-dependent signalling pathway that is independent of MyD88. We confirm the collaboration between NFAT and NF-κB for TNF-α production in primary alveolar macrophages. These observations identify inhibition of a newly discovered macrophage TLR9–BTK–calcineurin–NFAT signalling pathway as a key immune defect that leads to organ transplant-related invasive aspergillosis.EMBO Molecular Medicine 01/2015; 7(3). DOI:10.15252/emmm.201404556 · 8.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune deficiency and autoimmunity have been recognized as cotravelers for decades. This clinically oriented review brings together our evolving mechanistic understanding to highlight associations of particular relevance to rheumatologists.Current Opinion in Rheumatology 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000091 · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is becoming more and more accepted that, in addition to producing autoantibodies, B lymphocytes have other important functions that influence the development of autoimmunity. For example, autoreactive B cells are able to produce inflammatory cytokines and activate pathogenic T cells. B lymphocytes can react to extracellular signals with a range of responses from anergy to autoreactivity. The final outcome is determined by the relative contribution of signaling events mediated by activating and inhibitory pathways. Besides the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), several costimulatory receptors expressed on B cells can also induce B cell proliferation and survival, or regulate antibody production. These include CD19, CD40, the B cell activating factor receptor, and Toll-like receptors. Hyperactivity of these receptors clearly contributes to breaking B-cell tolerance in several autoimmune diseases. Inhibitors of these activating signals (including protein tyrosine phosphatases, deubiquitinating enzymes and several adaptor proteins) are crucial to control B-cell activation and maintain B-cell tolerance. In this review, we summarize the inhibitory signaling mechanisms that counteract B-cell activation triggered by the BCR and the coreceptors.Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00109-015-1252-8 · 4.74 Impact Factor