Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is increasing in French female patients. The objective of this study was to study the clinical and demographic characteristics and the prognosis of this female population. Secondary outcomes were to determine if a subgroup of patient had a different prognosis.
A prospective study from 1989 to 2002 of all female patients presenting SCC of the upper aerodogestive tract was conducted. Data for 171 women were extracted. Clinical and histological features were analyzed using chi(2) and log-rank tests along with the Kaplan Meier method and multivariate analysis using the Cox regression procedure.
Mean patient age was 62 years. Of the study population, 48.5% used tobacco and 34.5% used alcohol. The relative risk of death for overall and cancer-specific survival increased for patients below the age of 45 or over the age of 70 (95% Cl; 0.3-1.05; P = .0085). Tobacco consumption decreased cancer-specific and overall survival (P = .0008 and .0001, respectively). The other prognostic factors we found were tumor and nodal status, previous or simultaneous cancer, oral cavity primary site.
Prognosis of oropharyngeal and oral squamous cell carcinomas is less favorable in females who smoke as well as in younger and older women. With these patients, the oversight must be closer. Smoking, however, should be stopped.
"This gender distribution was similar to a few of the studies in the past (Mehrotra et al.), whereas, some studies report a much higher incidence of females suffering from these cancers (Kumar et al., 2001; Güneri et al.). A few of the studies have reported an increasing incidence of these cancers in the females (Gaitán-Cepeda et al., 2010; Girod et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell signaling is critical in oral lichen planus (OLP) based on the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous lesion. Lck plays a key role in T cell signaling; ultimately this signaling affects other targets such as PI-3K. Excessive activity in PI-3K inhibits apoptosis and promotes uncontrolled cell growth. Molecular biomarker profiling in OLP, Chronic Interface Mucosities (CIM), Epithelial Dysplasia (EpD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCCA) with application of the principle of biomarker voting may represent a new frontier in the diagnosis, assessment and the arguable debate of OLP transformation to cancer. The presence of Lck, PI-3K and Survivin, a cancer specific anti-apoptotic protein was assessed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue micro-array on patient samples, in OLP, SCCA, CIM and EpD. Lck expression was very high in 78.6 % of OLP patients compared to 3.7% in SCCA; PI-3K was high in 63% of SCCA, 100% of EpD, and 35.7% OLP cases. Survivin was high in 64.3% of OLP cases, 96.3% of SCCA, and 100% of EpD. CIM cases may be slightly different molecularly to OLP. Taken together, our data suggest that biomarker protein voting can be effectively used to isolate high-risk OLP cases. Specifically, we show data with four remarkable cases demonstrating that molecular factors are predictive of histopathology. We conclude that it is safer to treat OLP as premalignant lesions, to adopt aggressive treatment measure in histopathologic described well and moderately differentiated SCCA, and to monitor progress of these diseases molecularly using individualized auto-proteomic approach. The use of Lck inhibitors in OLP management needs to be investigated in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To discuss the risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as well as emphasize the importance of systematic monitoring for early diagnosis of premalignant lesions. Topics: Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as other oral malignancy is more common among males aged over 45 years-old; however, this gender rate tends to be less pronounced and more documented in young adults. The tongue presents itself as the preferentially place affected by this type of cancer, representing about 50% of oral carcinomas. Squamous cell carcinoma can be presented in different clinical aspect, like exophytic, endophytic, leukoplakia, erytroplakia or erytroleucoplakia. Patients should avoid exposure to major riskfactors: tobacco and alcohol, but other factors may promote the emergence of potentially malignant lesions: viral infections, oral lichen planus, iron deficiency, immunosuppression, food ingestion in extreme temperatures and traumatic agents. Squamous cell carcinoma is often preceded by pre-malignant lesions, but mostly clinically detectable symptoms. These lesions appear to be in the form of leukoplakia, erytroplakia or eytroleucoplakiaand whenever they are identified, a conventional biopsy should be performed to obtain a definitive histopathological diagnosis. Developed work: Search based on several primary and secondary databases a Medline/Pubmed database, B-Online, Scielo and Scopus.
Revista Portuguesa de Estomatologia 03/2010; 51(1):49–55. DOI:10.1016/S1646-2890(10)70085-6
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