Article

DJ-1 and prevention of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease and other age-related disorders.

Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University Clinics Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.27). 09/2009; 47(10):1354-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in the PARK7/DJ-1 gene are rare causes of autosomal-recessive hereditary Parkinson's disease. Loss-of-function mutations lead to the characteristic selective neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which accounts for parkinsonian symptoms. Originally identified as an oncogene, DJ-1 is a ubiquitous redox-responsive cytoprotective protein with diverse functions. In addition to cell-autonomous neuroprotective roles, DJ-1 may act in a transcellular manner, being up-regulated in reactive astrocytes in chronic neurodegenerative diseases as well as in stroke. Thus, DJ-1, particularly in its oxidized form, has been recognized as a biomarker for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. The crystal structure of DJ-1 has been solved, allowing detailed investigations of the redox-reactive center of DJ-1. Structure-function studies revealed that DJ-1 may become activated in the presence of reactive oxygen species, under conditions of oxidative stress, but also as part of physiological receptor-mediated signal transduction. DJ-1 regulates redox signaling kinase pathways and acts as a transcriptional regulator of antioxidative gene batteries. Therefore, DJ-1 is an important redox-reactive signaling intermediate controlling oxidative stress after ischemia, upon neuroinflammation, and during age-related neurodegenerative processes. Augmenting DJ-1 activity might provide novel approaches to treating chronic neurodegenerative illnesses such as Parkinson's disease and acute damage such as stroke.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
92 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammation has long been associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) but the extent to which it is a cause or consequence is sill debated. Over the past decade a number of genes have been implicated in PD. Relatively rare missense mutations in genes such as LRRK2, Parkin, SNCA and PINK1 are causative for familial PD whereas more common variation in genes, including LRRK2, SNCA and GBA, comprise risk factors for sporadic PD. Determining how the function of these genes and the proteins they encode are altered in PD has become a priority, as results will likely provide much needed insights into contributing causes. Accumulating evidence indicates that many of these genes function in pathways that regulate aspects of immunity, particularly inflammation, suggesting close associations between PD and immune homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Neuroscience 10/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, leading to a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms. Interestingly, non-motor symptoms often appear a decade or more before the first signs of motor symptoms. Some of these non-motor symptoms are remarkably similar to those observed in cases of impaired neurogenesis and several PD-related genes have been shown to play a role in embryonic or adult neurogenesis. Indeed, animal models deficient in Nurr1, Pitx3, SNCA and PINK1 display deregulated embryonic neurogenesis and LRRK2 and VPS35 have been implicated in neuronal development-related processes such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, adult neurogenesis is affected in both PD patients and PD animal models and is regulated by dopamine and dopaminergic (DA) receptors, by chronic neuroinflammation, such as that observed in PD, and by differential expression of wild-type or mutant forms of PD-related genes. Indeed, an increasing number of in vivo studies demonstrate a role for SNCA and LRRK2 in adult neurogenesis and in the generation and maintenance of DA neurons. Finally, the roles of PD-related genes, SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, Parkin, PINK1 and DJ-1 have been studied in NSCs, progenitor cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, demonstrating a role for some of these genes in stem/progenitor cell proliferation and maintenance. Together, these studies strongly suggest a link between deregulated neurogenesis and the onset and progression of PD and present strong evidence that, in addition to a neurodegenerative disorder, PD can also be regarded as a developmental disorder.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2014; · 5.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species play a central role in the pathophysiology of the age-related decrease in male fertility. It has been reported that the total protein of DJ-1 was decreased in a proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients and a DJ-1 protein acts as a sensor of cellular redox homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the age-related changes in the ratio of the oxidized/reduced forms of the DJ-1 protein in the epididymis. In addition, the protective effects of S-allyl cysteine (SAC), a potent antioxidant, were evaluated against sperm dysfunction. Male rats aged 15-75 weeks were used to assess age-associated sperm function and oxidative stress. Sperm count increased until 25 weeks, but then decreased at 50 and 75 weeks. The rate of sperm movement at 75 weeks was decreased to approximately 60% of the rate observed at 25 weeks. Expression of DJ-1 decreased, but oxidized-DJ-1 increased with age. In addition, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal modified proteins in the epididymis increased until 50 weeks of age. The total number and DNA synthetic potential of the sperm increased until 25 weeks, and then decreased. In rats 75 weeks of age, SAC (0.45% diet) attenuated the decrease in the number, motility, and DNA synthesis of sperm and inhibited the oxidized proteins. These results suggest that SAC ameliorates the quality of sperm subjected to age-associated oxidative stress.
    Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 11/2014; 55(3):155-161. · 2.29 Impact Factor