Anxiety and depression among abstainers and low-level alcohol consumers. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

Psychiatric Clinic, Stord DPS, Helse Fonna HF, Norway.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 10/2009; 104(9):1519-29. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02659.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the levels of anxiety and depression among individuals consuming low levels of alcohol.
Prospective and cross-sectional population-based study.
This study employed data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT-2, n = 38 930).
Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report of usual alcohol consumption during a 2-week period. Low-level alcohol consumption was defined as self-reported abstainers and non-abstainers currently consuming no alcohol. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale. Potential explanatory variables included somatic illness and symptoms, health-related behaviour, socio-economic status and social activity. In a subsample (n = 20 337), we also looked at the impact of previous heavy drinking among abstainers ('sick-quitting').
A U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and the risk of anxiety and depression was found. Abstention was related to increased odds for both case-level anxiety [1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.52] and depression (1.52, 95% CI 1.30-1.77). This association was accounted for partly by adjustments for socio-economic status, social network, somatic illness, age (depression only), gender (anxiety only) and 'sick-quitting'. We also identified significant differences between participants who label themselves as abstainers compared to those who report no usual alcohol consumption, but who do not label themselves as abstainers.
The risk of case-level anxiety and depression is elevated in individuals with low alcohol consumption compared to those with moderate consumption. Individuals who label themselves as abstainers are at particularly increased risk. This increased risk cannot fully be explained by somatic illness, social activity or 'sick-quitting'.

Download full-text


Available from: Samuel B Harvey, Sep 27, 2015
77 Reads
  • Source
    • "and depression [11] [12], both of which are mental illnesses associated with substance abuse [13]. Despite the indirect link between acute exercise and substance abuse, the role of acute exercise in MA craving has not yet been examined. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effect of acute exercise in the potential context of non-pharmacological intervention for methamphetamine (MA)-related craving; we additionally determine its effect on the inhibitory control induced by standard and MA-related tasks according to behavioral and neuroelectric measurements among MA-dependent individuals. The present study employed a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. A total of 24 participants who met the DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were recruited. The craving level, reaction time, and response accuracy, as well as the event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3, were measured following exercise and the control treatment in a counterbalanced order. The exercise session consisted of an acute stationary cycle exercise at a moderate intensity, whereas the control treatment consisted of an active reading session. The self-reported MA craving was significantly attenuated during, immediately following, and 50min after the exercise session compared with the pre-exercise ratings, whereas the craving scores at these time points following exercise were lower than those for the reading control session. Acute exercise also facilitated inhibitory performance in both the standard and MA-related Go/Nogo tasks. A larger N2 amplitude, but not a larger P3 amplitude, was observed during both tasks in the exercise session and the Nogo condition compared with the reading control session and the Go condition. This is the first empirical study to demonstrate these beneficial effects of acute aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity on MA-related craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals. These results suggest a potential role for acute aerobic exercise in treating this specific type of substance abuse. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Physiology & Behavior 04/2015; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.04.008 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "'90.0–100th'. Excessive alcohol consumption was defined as above the 90th centile sum (Skogen et al., 2009, 2011). Frequent intoxication was defined as drinking so much that one was clearly intoxicated more than 10 times, based on the question: " Have you ever consumed so much alcohol that you were clearly intoxicated (drunk)? "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Changes in sleep patterns and increased substance involvement are common in adolescence, but our knowledge of the nature of their association remains limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between several sleep problems and sleep behaviours, and use and misuse of alcohol and illicit drugs using data from a large population-based sample. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland study, surveyed 9328 adolescents aged 16-19 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep deficit, weekday bedtime and bedtime difference and insomnia. The main dependent variables were frequency and amount of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, in addition to the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. The results showed that all sleep parameters were associated with substance involvement in a dose-response manner. Short sleep duration, sleep deficit, large bedtime differences and insomnia were all significantly associated with higher odds of all alcohol and drug use/misuse measures. The associations were only partly attenuated by sociodemographics factors and co-existing symptoms of depression and ADHD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to examine the association between sleep, and alcohol and drug use, by employing detailed measures of sleep behaviour and problems, as well as validated measures on consumption of alcohol and illicit drug use. The findings call for increased awareness of the link between sleep problems and alcohol and drugs use/misuse as a major public health issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 02/2015; 149. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.045 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Similarly, one can use the recommended consumption in standard alcohol drinks to distinguish between safe and hazardous use. However, there is evidence from previous studies that the association between alcohol and mental health is not linear (Power et al., 1998; Rodgers et al., 2000b; Degenhardt et al., 2001; Skogen et al., 2009). In order to highlight these non-linear associations we grouped the full range of alcohol consumption in 6 categories including that of abstinence or excessive drinking, as follows:(a) Regarding the total AUDIT scores we derived 6 groups of increasing severity defined using the 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles, this was done separately for men and women considering that safe consumption guidance and harmful use cut-offs are different for men and women (Bergman and Källmén, 2002).(b) "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is associated with several complications of both physical and mental health. Light or moderate alcohol consumption may have beneficial effects on physical or mental health but this effect is still controversial and research in the mental health field is relatively scarce. Our aim was to investigate the association between varying levels of alcohol consumption and the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety in a large international primary care sample. The sample consisted of 5438 primary care attenders from 14 countries who participated in the WHO Collaborative Study of Psychological Problems in General Health Care. Alcohol use was assessed using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared to abstinence while excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a higher prevalence of depression. This non-linear association was not substantially affected after adjustment for a range of possible confounding variables, including the presence of chronic disease and the current physical status of participants and was evident in different drinking cultures. The study confirms that excessive drinking is associated with an increased prevalence of depression, but also raises the possibility that light/moderate drinking may be associated with a reduced prevalence of both depression and anxiety. Any causal interpretation of this association is difficult in the context of this cross-sectional study and further longitudinal studies are needed.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2013; 133(3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.08.030 · 3.42 Impact Factor
Show more