Article

Prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors of restless legs syndrome in the Korean elderly population - results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 2.95). 08/2009; 19(1 Pt 1):87-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00739.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, neuropsychiatric comorbidities, iron metabolism and potential risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the elderly Korean population. As a community-based epidemiological study, a simple random sample of 1118 was drawn from a roster of 61 730 adult individuals aged 65 years and older and 714 participated. The diagnosis of RLS was established in face-to-face interviews using the four minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS recommended by National Institute of Health. Depressive symptoms, nocturnal sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were evaluated. Laboratory tests of iron metabolism, markers of inflammation, renal and endocrine function, hormones and vitamins were performed. A total of 59 patients (42 women and 17 men) were diagnosed as RLS with a prevalence of 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.2-10.3%), with an almost twofold higher prevalence in women (10.2%) than in men (5.7%). Depression was more prevalent among the subjects with RLS than without RLS and poor nocturnal sleep and quality of life were also observed in subjects with RLS. Daytime sleepiness was observed in 32.8% of subjects with RLS. No significant differences were found in iron metabolism or other risk factors between the subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS in the Korean elderly population was comparable with that in the Caucasian population. RLS had undesirable effects on mood, sleep quality and general wellbeing of elderly individuals.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This narrative review describes the differential diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, and provides an overview of the evidence for the associations between RLS and potential comorbidities. Secondary causes of RLS and the characteristics of pediatric RLS are also discussed. Finally, management strategies for RLS are summarized. Methods: The review began with a comprehensive PubMed search for "restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease" in combination with the following: anxiety, arthritis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cardiac, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities, depression, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, insomnia, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, mood disorder, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, neuropathy, obesity, pain, Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, pregnancy, psychiatric disorder, sleep disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and uremia. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Results and Conclusions: Although clinical diagnosis of RLS can be straightforward, diagnostic challenges may arise when patients present with comorbid conditions. Comorbidities of RLS include insomnia, depressive and anxiety disorders, and pain disorders. Differential diagnosis is particularly important, as some of the medications used to treat insomnia and depression may exacerbate RLS symptoms. Appropriate diagnosis and management of RLS symptoms may benefit patient well-being and, in some cases, may lessen comorbid disease burden. Therefore, it is important that physicians are aware of the presence of RLS when treating patients with conditions that commonly co-occur with the disorder.
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is one of the most common neurological disorders in Caucasian populations with prevalence rates between 5% and 15%. A recent study conducted in rural northern Tanzania documented a prevalence of only 0.013%. This result requires further investigation of the epidemiology of RLS in Africa, as prevalence rates seem to vary among different ethnicities.
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    Edited by Sociedad Española de Neurologia, Sociedad Española de Sueño, 01/2013; Ed. Luzán 5. Madrid., ISBN: 978-84-7989-786-4

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