Prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors of restless legs syndrome in the Korean elderly population - Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
Journal of Sleep Research (Impact Factor: 3.35). 08/2009; 19(1 Pt 1):87-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00739.x
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, neuropsychiatric comorbidities, iron metabolism and potential risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the elderly Korean population. As a community-based epidemiological study, a simple random sample of 1118 was drawn from a roster of 61 730 adult individuals aged 65 years and older and 714 participated. The diagnosis of RLS was established in face-to-face interviews using the four minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS recommended by National Institute of Health. Depressive symptoms, nocturnal sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were evaluated. Laboratory tests of iron metabolism, markers of inflammation, renal and endocrine function, hormones and vitamins were performed. A total of 59 patients (42 women and 17 men) were diagnosed as RLS with a prevalence of 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.2-10.3%), with an almost twofold higher prevalence in women (10.2%) than in men (5.7%). Depression was more prevalent among the subjects with RLS than without RLS and poor nocturnal sleep and quality of life were also observed in subjects with RLS. Daytime sleepiness was observed in 32.8% of subjects with RLS. No significant differences were found in iron metabolism or other risk factors between the subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS in the Korean elderly population was comparable with that in the Caucasian population. RLS had undesirable effects on mood, sleep quality and general wellbeing of elderly individuals.


Available from: Seok Bum Lee, Oct 27, 2014
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    • "Generally, higher urine protein excretion is associated with dyslipidemia, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and renal function decline [2]. All these findings are recognized factors associated with RLS in patients with CKD [18,19]. Due absence of data about inflammation and endothelial function, we cannot speculate about the precise pathophysiological mechanisms underling this association. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite a confirmed association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), there is no study on patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome (NS). To investigate the frequency of RLS and poor quality sleep in NS-patients secondary to primary glomerulopathy with nearly normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and its associated factors. Methods Patients with NS, defined as 24 h-urine protein greater than 3.5 g/1.73 m2 and hypoalbuminemia, (n = 99, 53 women) and a mean age of 36±11 years were studied. Age and sex-matched controls were used to compare RLS and poor sleep quality prevalence. Standardized RLS questionnaire formulated by the International Restless Legs Syndrome and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. Results RLS was more frequent in NS-patients than in controls (22.8 vs. 4.0%, p = 0.01). Mean time since diagnosis (52.2±34.1 vs. 28.6±22.5 months, p < 0.01) and 24 h-proteinuria (3.7±1.3 vs. 2.6±0.6 g/1.73 m2, p = 0.001) were greater in NS-patients with RLS those not presenting RLS. Association between RLS with 24 h-proteinuria [OR = 2.31; p = 0.007; 95% CI 1.87-2.89] and time since diagnosis [OR = 1.10; p = 0.003; CI = 1.02-1.39] were identified even after controlling for age, GFR and diabetes. Sleep quality was poor in NS-patients than in controls (mean PSQI score 7.35±3.7 vs. 5.2±3.0, p = 0.003). In NS-patients, only RLS was associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 1.20; p = 0.004). Conclusion Poor quality sleep and RLS are frequent in NS-patients without ESRD. Pathophysiology of this association must be further investigated.
    BMC Nephrology 05/2013; 14(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-14-113 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep and sensorimotor disorder that affects a large percentage of adults in the western industrialized world and is associated with profound reductions in quality of life. However, the etiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. Enhanced understanding regarding both the antecedents and sequelae of RLS could shed new light on the pathogenesis of RLS. Evidence from an emerging body of literature suggests associations between RLS and diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and related conditions linked to sympathetic activation and metabolic dysregulation, raising the possibility that these factors may likewise play a significant role in the development and progression of RLS, and could help explain the recently documented associations between RLS and subsequent cardiovascular disease. However, the relation between RLS and these chronic conditions has received relatively little attention to date, although potential implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of RLS could be considerable. In this paper, we systematically review the recently published literature regarding the association of RLS to cardiovascular disease and related risk factors characterized by sympathoadrenal and metabolic dysregulation, discuss potential underlying mechanisms, and outline some possible directions for future research.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 07/2011; 16(4):309-39. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.04.001 · 8.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) has gained considerable attention in the recent years: nearly 50 community-based studies have been published in the last decade around the world. The development of strict diagnostic criteria in 1995 and their revision in 2003 helped to stimulate research interest on this syndrome. In community-based surveys, RLS has been studied as: 1) a symptom only, 2) a set of symptoms meeting minimal diagnostic criteria of the international restless legs syndrome study group (IRLSSG), 3) meeting minimal criteria accompanied with a specific frequency and/or severity, and 4) a differential diagnosis. In the first case, prevalence estimates in the general adult population ranged from 9.4% to 15%. In the second case, prevalence ranged from 3.9% to 14.3%. When frequency/severity is added, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 7.9% and when differential diagnosis is applied prevalence estimates are between 1.9% and 4.6%. In all instances, RLS prevalence is higher in women than in men. It also increases with age in European and North American countries but not in Asian countries. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been consistently associated with RLS. Overall, individuals with RLS have a poorer health than non-RLS but evidence for specific disease associations is mixed. Future epidemiological studies should focus on systematically adding frequency and severity in the definition of the syndrome in order to minimize the inclusion of cases mimicking RLS.
    Sleep Medicine Reviews 07/2011; 16(4):283-95. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.05.002 · 8.51 Impact Factor
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