Benign Inclusion of Axillary Lymph Nodes: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.
The Breast Journal (Impact Factor: 1.41). 09/2009; 15(6):664-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00815.x
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Most diagnoses in breast pathology can be rendered after careful evaluation of a high quality hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue section. However, a significant number of both benign and malignant lesions can show variable morphologic patterns and significant histologic overlap, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. These challenges and complexities have opened the door to an expanding role for immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an important diagnostic adjunct for solving frequently encountered problems in breast pathology. Although IHC has proven to be a powerful tool in helping to resolve difficult cases, the results of such studies should always be carefully interpreted within the morphologic context for each lesion. This article will briefly review some of the more common circumstances in which IHC has been shown to be useful in diagnostic breast pathology.
    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 12/2011; 19(6):501-5. DOI:10.1097/PAI.0b013e31822c8a48 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there have been several studies on the use of immunohistochemical biomarkers of canine mammary tumors (CMTs), the results are difficult to compare. This article provides guidelines on the most useful immunohistochemical markers to standardize their use and understand how outcomes are measured, thus ensuring reproducibility of results. We have reviewed the biomarkers of canine mammary epithelial and myoepithelial cells and identified those biomarkers that are most useful and those biomarkers for invasion and lymph node micrometastatic disease. A 10% threshold for positive reaction for most of these markers is recommended. Guidelines on immunolabeling for HER2, estrogen receptors (ERs), and progesterone receptors (PRs) are provided along with the specific recommendations for interpretation of the results for each of these biomarkers in CMTs. Only 3+ HER2-positive tumors should be considered positive, as found in human breast cancer. The lack of any known response to adjuvant endocrine therapy of ER- and PR-positive CMTs prevents the use of the biological positive/negative threshold used in human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry results of ER and PR in CMTs should be reported as the sum of the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of immunolabeling (Allred score). Incorporation of these recommendations in future studies, either prospective or retrospective, will provide a mechanism for the direct comparison of studies and will help to determine whether these biomarkers have prognostic significance. Finally, these biomarkers may ascertain the most appropriate treatment(s) for canine malignant mammary neoplasms.
    Veterinary Pathology 11/2013; 51(1). DOI:10.1177/0300985813509388 · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CONSENSUS PROPOSAL ON ESSENTIAL PHENOTYPE MARKERS AND HORMONE RECEPTOR ASSESSMENT IN CANINE MAMMARY TUMOURS L. Pe~na*, A. Gama y , M. Goldschmidt z , J. Abadie x , C. Benazzi k , M. Castagnaro { , L. D�ıez*, F. Gartner#, E. Hellmen yy , M. Kiupel zz , Y. Mill�an xx , M. Miller kk , F. Nguyen x , A. Poli {{ , G. Sarli k , V. Zappulli { and J. Martin de las Mulas xx *Complutense University of Madrid, Spain, y University of Tr�as-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal, z University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA, x LUNAM University, Nantes, France, k University of Bologna, Italy, { University of Padua, Italy, #University of Porto, Portugal, yy Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden, zz Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA, xx University of C�ordoba, Spain, kk Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA and {{ University of Pisa, Italy Introduction: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has played an increasing role as a diagnostic tool for the identification of neoplasms and pathogens. In canine mammary tumours (CMTs), there have been an increasing number of studies looking for reliable diagnostic and/or prognostic immunohistochemical biomarkers, but no consensus has been reached. These studies cannot be compared because of the differences in how these biomarkers have been used and evaluated. Materials and Methods: Review of the literature including IHC markers on CMTs in order to detect the best immunolabelling and evaluation systems for each marker. Results: After the review process, the authors reached a consensus regarding practical questions related to the methodology and provided guidelines on immunolabelling for CMTs markers, together with the specific recommendations for interpretation of the results for each of these biomarkers in CMTs. Conclusions: By standardizing the methods used for labelling and interpretation of these IHC markers, we aim to ensure consistency and reproducibility of future study results.
    Journal of Comparative Pathology; 01/2014

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