Benign inclusion of axillary lymph nodes: report of two cases and literature review.
Department of Pathology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.The Breast Journal (Impact Factor: 1.43). 09/2009; 15(6):664-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00815.x
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ABSTRACT: Although there have been several studies on the use of immunohistochemical biomarkers of canine mammary tumors (CMTs), the results are difficult to compare. This article provides guidelines on the most useful immunohistochemical markers to standardize their use and understand how outcomes are measured, thus ensuring reproducibility of results. We have reviewed the biomarkers of canine mammary epithelial and myoepithelial cells and identified those biomarkers that are most useful and those biomarkers for invasion and lymph node micrometastatic disease. A 10% threshold for positive reaction for most of these markers is recommended. Guidelines on immunolabeling for HER2, estrogen receptors (ERs), and progesterone receptors (PRs) are provided along with the specific recommendations for interpretation of the results for each of these biomarkers in CMTs. Only 3+ HER2-positive tumors should be considered positive, as found in human breast cancer. The lack of any known response to adjuvant endocrine therapy of ER- and PR-positive CMTs prevents the use of the biological positive/negative threshold used in human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry results of ER and PR in CMTs should be reported as the sum of the percentage of positive cells and the intensity of immunolabeling (Allred score). Incorporation of these recommendations in future studies, either prospective or retrospective, will provide a mechanism for the direct comparison of studies and will help to determine whether these biomarkers have prognostic significance. Finally, these biomarkers may ascertain the most appropriate treatment(s) for canine malignant mammary neoplasms.Veterinary Pathology 11/2013; 51(1). · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most diagnoses in breast pathology can be rendered after careful evaluation of a high quality hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue section. However, a significant number of both benign and malignant lesions can show variable morphologic patterns and significant histologic overlap, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. These challenges and complexities have opened the door to an expanding role for immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an important diagnostic adjunct for solving frequently encountered problems in breast pathology. Although IHC has proven to be a powerful tool in helping to resolve difficult cases, the results of such studies should always be carefully interpreted within the morphologic context for each lesion. This article will briefly review some of the more common circumstances in which IHC has been shown to be useful in diagnostic breast pathology.Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 12/2011; 19(6):501-5. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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