Hydroxytyrosol inhibits the proliferation of human colon adenocarcinoma cells through inhibition of ERK1/2 and cyclin D1.
ABSTRACT Extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds which are believed to exert beneficial effects against many pathological processes, including the development of colon cancer. We show that one of the major polyphenolic constituents of extra virgin olive oil, hydroxytyrosol (HT), exerts strong antiproliferative effects against human colon adenocarcinoma cells via its ability to induce a cell cycle block in G2/M. These antiproliferative effects were preceded by a strong inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and a downstream reduction of cyclin D1 expression, rather than by inhibition of p38 activity and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. These findings are of particular relevance due to the high colonic concentration of HT compared to the other olive oil polyphenols and may help explain the inverse link between colon cancer and olive oil consumption.
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ABSTRACT: Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols express these beneficial properties appear to involve their interaction with cellular signaling pathways and related machinery that mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. We illustrate that their interactions with two such pathways, the MAP kinase (ERK, JNK, p38) and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling cascades, allow them to impact upon normal and abnormal cell function, thus influencing the cellular processes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, CVD and neurodegeneration. For example, their ability to activate ERK in neurons leads to a promotion of neuronal survival and cognitive enhancements, both of which influence the progression of Alzheimer's disease, whilst ERK activation by polyphenols in vascular endothelial cells influences nitric oxide production, blood pressure and ultimately CVD risk. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the role that polyphenols play in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. We present epidemiological data, human intervention study findings, as well as animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and in each case we consider how their actions at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects.Nutrients 11/2010; 2(11):1106-31. · 0.68 Impact Factor