Bioreductively activated lysyl oxidase inhibitors against hypoxic tumours.
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, I-56126 Pisa (Italy).ChemMedChem (impact factor: 3.15). 09/2009; 4(10):1590-4. DOI:10.1002/cmdc.200900247
Article: Synthesis by radical cyclization and cytotoxicity of highly potent bioreductive alicyclic ring fused [1,2-a]benzimidazolequinones.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The key step in the synthesis of new five, six and seven-membered alicyclic ring [1,2-a]-fused bioreductive benzimidazolequinones was radical cyclisation. Six and seven-membered tributyltin hydride-mediated homolytic aromatic substitutions of nucleophilic N-alkyl radicals onto the benzimidazole-2-position occurred in high yields (63-70 %) when quaternising the pyridine-like 3-N of imidazole with camphorsulfonic acid and using large excesses of the azo-initiator, 1,1'-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile), to supplement the non-chain reaction. Elaboration of benzimidazoles to the benzimidazolequinones occurred in excellent yields. The IC50 values for the cytotoxicity of benzimidazolequinones towards the human skin fibroblast cell line GM00637 were in the nanomolar range, as determined by using the MTT assay. The benzimidazolequinones were much more cytotoxic than indolequinone analogues. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydropyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-6,9-dione was the most potent compound prepared being more than 300 times more cytotoxic than the clinically used bioreductive drug, mitomycin C. The latter benzimidazolequinone was more potent under hypoxic conditions (associated with solid tumors), being 4.4 times more cytotoxic than under aerobic conditions, while mitomycin C was 1.8 times more selective towards hypoxia. The cyclopropane fused pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazolequinone, 1a,2,3,9b-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopropa[3,4]pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-5,8-dione was less cytotoxic and selective than the five-membered ring analogue, 1,1a,8,8a-tetrahydrocyclopropa[3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazole-3,6-dione. Modifying the structure of the most potent pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazolequinone by attaching methyl substituents onto the quinone moiety increased reductive potentials and decreased cytotoxicity and selectivity towards hypoxia.Chemistry 02/2007; 13(11):3218-26. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a multistep process responsible for most cancer deaths, and it can be influenced by both the immediate microenvironment (cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions) and the extended tumour microenvironment (for example vascularization). Hypoxia (low oxygen) is clinically associated with metastasis and poor patient outcome, although the underlying processes remain unclear. Microarray studies have shown the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) to be elevated in hypoxic human tumour cells. Paradoxically, LOX expression is associated with both tumour suppression and tumour progression, and its role in tumorigenesis seems dependent on cellular location, cell type and transformation status. Here we show that LOX expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and is associated with hypoxia in human breast and head and neck tumours. Patients with high LOX-expressing tumours have poor distant metastasis-free and overall survivals. Inhibition of LOX eliminates metastasis in mice with orthotopically grown breast cancer tumours. Mechanistically, secreted LOX is responsible for the invasive properties of hypoxic human cancer cells through focal adhesion kinase activity and cell to matrix adhesion. Furthermore, LOX may be required to create a niche permissive for metastatic growth. Our findings indicate that LOX is essential for hypoxia-induced metastasis and is a good therapeutic target for preventing and treating metastases.Nature 05/2006; 440(7088):1222-6. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lysyl oxidase (LOX) oxidizes the side chain of peptidyl lysine converting specific lysine residues to residues of alpha-aminoadipic-delta-semialdehyde. This posttranslational chemical change permits the covalent crosslinking of the component chains of collagen and those of elastin, thus stabilizing the fibrous deposits of these proteins in the extracellular matrix. Four LOX-like (LOXL) proteins with varying degrees of similarity to LOX have been described, constituting a family of related proteins. LOX is synthesized as a preproprotein which emerges from the cell as proLOX and then is processed to the active enzyme by proteolysis. In addition to elastin and collagen, LOX can oxidize lysine within a variety of cationic proteins, suggesting that its functions extend beyond its role in the stabilization of the extracellular matrix. Indeed, recent findings reveal that LOX and LOXL proteins markedly influence cell behavior including chemotactic responses, proliferation, and shifts between the normal and malignant phenotypes.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2006; 63(19-20):2304-16. · 6.57 Impact Factor
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