Validation of skinfold measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis in children with severe cerebral palsy: a review.

Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (Impact Factor: 3.27). 09/2009; 29(2):217-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.07.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Accurately measuring nutritional status in children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenge. This review seeks to assess the validity of skinfold measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for measuring body composition in children with severe CP.
We executed a literature search on the validation of both methods in children with severe CP. To be eligible for inclusion, a study had to report on a statistical comparison between these two methods and any method of reference. The QUADAS tool was used for quality assessment.
The search strategy resulted in 1549 studies of which 5 studies eventually met the inclusion criteria. When comparing body composition outcomes of skinfold measurements to a reference method, correlation coefficients were found ranging from 0.406 to 0.988. Correlation coefficients between body composition data of BIA and a reference method ranged from 0.515 to 0.95.
Although a number of authors found favorable agreement between skinfold measurements and BIA in comparison with reference methods, the small numbers studied, the lack of methodological quality measured by QUADAS, and the use of inappropriate analytical methods hamper solid conclusions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis were obtained. ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: During the four weeks of nutritional recovery, an average weight increase of 2700 g was achieved. There were significant increases in anthropometric indicators, including BMI and weight/length (p < 0.01). The increase in arm fat area was significantly higher than the increase in arm muscle area (104.5 vs 17.5%). Conclusion: Intensive nutritional support for four weeks had a significant effect on the nutritional status and body composition of severe and moderately malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 01/2014; 29(n04):838-843. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the accuracy of measurements of body fat percentage in ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skinfold equations. One hundred and twenty-eight individuals (65 males, 63 females; mean age 12y, SD 3, range 6-18y) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I (n=6), II (n=46), and III (n=19) participated. Body fat percentage was estimated from (1) BIA using standing height and estimated heights (knee height and tibial length) and (2) triceps and subscapular skinfolds using standard and CP-specific equations. All estimates of body fat percentage were compared with body fat percentage from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Differences between DXA, BIA, and skinfold body fat percentage were analyzed by comparing mean differences. Agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC). BMI was moderately correlated with DXA (Pearson's r=0.53). BIA body fat percentage was significantly different from DXA when using estimated heights (95% confidence intervals [CIs] do not contain 0) but not standing height (95% CI -1.9 to 0.4). CCCs for all BIA comparisons indicated good to excellent agreement (0.75-0.82) with DXA. Body fat percentage from skinfold measurements and CP-specific equations was not significantly different from DXA (mean 0.8%; SD 5.3%; 95% CI -0.2 to 1.7) and demonstrated strong agreement with DXA (CCC 0.86). Accurate measures of body fat percentage can be obtained using BIA and two skinfold measurements (CP-specific equations) in ambulatory individuals with CP. These findings should encourage assessments of body fat in clinical and research practices.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 12/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutritional changes are commonly related to children with cerebral palsy (CP), since these are problems as: dysphagia, vomiting and gastrointestinal reflux. For nutrition-al monitoring, body composition has become an important tool and has been present in this population assessments routine. In this sense, the aim of this study was to develop an equation for body composition estimate for children with cerebral palsy, aged between 5 and 6 years, using skinfolds, from the results of body composition obtained by Dual Energy X-rays Absor-metry (DEXA). The study included 10 male children with cerebral palsy, aged between five and six-years-old, who parti-cipated in the physical therapy intensive program in Vitória research center, Curitiba, Brazil. Participants were assessed by: the Gross Motor Function Classification System; DEXA; and skinfold thickness. The skinfolds that showed better corre-lation with the total fat percentage and segmental fat percen-tage were: biceps and abdominal. The results of the regression analysis obtained equations to estimate the fat percentage by skinfold thickness with R 2 : 1.000 and 0.971, to seven and two skinfold thickness, respectively. In this sense, it is recommend-ed to use the equation that utilizes the biceps and abdominal skinfolds thickness to estimate fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy, as this presents good estimation indicators.