Chronic exposure to MDMA (ecstasy) increases DNA damage in sperm and alters testes histopathology in male rats.
ABSTRACT 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is consumed mainly by young population. For this reason, it is especially relevant to take into consideration the effects on the reproductive system. The influence of MDMA on the fertility and reproduction of the male rat was assessed in this study. MDMA was administered subcutaneously at 0 mg/kg (control), 0.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg to SD male rats once a day, 3 consecutive days a week during 12 weeks, simulating human weekend associated consumption. Hormonal, haematological, biochemical, histological, genotoxicological and testicular and sperm parameters were evaluated in half of the rats. The remaining animals were mated with untreated sexually receptive females to evaluate the mating and pregnancy rates. A significantly higher incidence of DNA damage in Comet Test in sperm, tubular degeneration and interstitial oedema in testes was found. At all doses tested, sperm motility, morphology, mating and pregnancy rates, and number of implantation sites were not affected. This study fills the existing gap of knowledge about the chronic effects of MDMA in reproductive function using a realistic experimental design. Taking into account the higher sensitivity of human males, some concerns about the effects on the reproductive health still remain.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ecstasy is used to improve mood and cordiality; however, based on some reports, it is neurotoxic to human users. Because of the euphoria induced by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on the users, its consumption is increasing in almost all countries. This study was carried out to determine the effects of ecstasy administration in rats' blood sugar, lipids profile, and liver function tests. The experiment was performed using 50 mature Wistar-Albino male rats. The rats were divided into five groups (n = 10). Sham control group (A), received tap water and ordinary rodent diet. The control (B) was administered saline but tests group C, D1, and D2 received single dose and multiple doses of MDMA, respectively. After experimental period, animals were deeply anesthetized by diethyl ether, sacrificed and the blood samples were collected for the evaluation of blood glucose, serum lipid and aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P). Data were expressed as mean ± SD and statistical difference was considered significant at P < 0.05. In C group, the values of blood sugar (193.8 ± 11.6 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (19.2 ± 7.9 mg/dL), and cholesterol (76.1 ± 10.6 mg/dL), were significantly increased compared with those of control A and B (135 ± 12.7), (140 ± 18.8), and (45.4 ± 9.8), (49.8 ± 2.1) (49.4 ± 10.6) groups. However, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly increased in groups D1 (145.8 ± 14.7 U/L), (91.1 ± 8.1 U/L), and D2 (159.4 ± 13.8 U/L) and (75.4 ± 7.8) compared with those of group A (107.2 ± 8.1), (45.4 ± 9.8), B (79.8 ± 12.1), (49.8 ± 2.1), and C (115.6 ± 17.5), (52.1 ± 7.6 U/L). Cholesterol and LDL increased in groups C and D compared with group A. These results indicated that chronic administration of MDMA affects liver as well as lipoprotein profile in male rats. The exact mechanism of action needs further investigation.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synthesis, characterization, and luminescent properties of a series of 5,5'-X-substituted salophen ligands, X= OCH3, Br, and NO2, and the corresponding Zn(II) complexes are reported here. Their biological activity has been analyzed and related to the different Lewis acid character of the complexes. In vitro studies (AFM and absorption and emission titrations) show that the strongest interaction with free plasmid DNA is observed for 5,5'-dinitro-substituted Zinc-salophen complex 3b. Semiempirical theoretical calculations together with redox potential measurements suggest that this might be interpreted as a direct consequence of this compound having the hardest Lewis acid character. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies undertaken with these metal complexes show that they enter the cells but are not cytotoxic.Inorganic Chemistry 07/2013; 52(16). DOI:10.1021/ic4004356 · 4.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent monitoring studies showed measurable levels of the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in aquatic environments. However, no information is currently available on its potential hazard to aquatic non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential sub-lethal effects induced by 14-day exposures to low MDMA concentrations (0.05 and 0.5 μg/L) to zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) specimens through the application of a biomarker suite. The trypan blue exclusion method and the neutral red retention assay (NRRA) were used to assess MDMA cytotoxicity. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as the lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC), were measured as oxidative stress indexes. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, the DNA diffusion assay, and the micronucleus test (MN test) were applied to investigate DNA damage, while filtration rate was measured as physiological parameter. Despite significant decrease in lysosome membrane stability, hemocyte viability and imbalances in CAT and GST activities pointed out at the end of the exposure to 0.5 μg/L, no significant variations for the other end points were noticed at both the treatments, suggesting that environmentally relevant MDMA concentrations did not induce deleterious effects to the zebra mussel.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 06/2014; 21(18). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3094-2 · 2.76 Impact Factor