Article

Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery.

Section of Molecular Biology, 0347, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0347, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.87). 09/2009; 339(2):225-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.08.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The RNA polymerase II core promoter is a structurally and functionally diverse transcriptional regulatory element. There are two main strategies for transcription initiation - focused and dispersed initiation. In focused initiation, transcription starts from a single nucleotide or within a cluster of several nucleotides, whereas in dispersed initiation, there are several weak transcription start sites over a broad region of about 50 to 100 nucleotides. Focused initiation is the predominant means of transcription in simpler organisms, whereas dispersed initiation is observed in approximately two-thirds of vertebrate genes. Regulated genes tend to have focused promoters, and constitutive genes typically have dispersed promoters. Hence, in vertebrates, focused promoters are used in a small but biologically important fraction of genes. The properties of focused core promoters are dependent upon the presence or absence of sequence motifs such as the TATA box and DPE. For example, Caudal, a key regulator of the homeotic gene network, preferentially activates transcription from DPE- versus TATA-dependent promoters. The basal transcription factors, which act in conjunction with the core promoter, are another important component in the regulation of gene expression. For instance, upon differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, the cells undergo a switch from a TFIID-based transcription system to a TRF3-TAF3-based system. These findings suggest that the core promoter and basal transcription factors are important yet mostly unexplored components in the regulation of gene expression.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe for the first time the creation of a library of 140 synthetic promoters specifically designed to regulate the expression of recombinant genes in CHO cells. Initially, 10 common viral promoter sequences known to be active in CHO cells were analysed using bioinformatic sequence analysis programs to determine the identity and relative abundance of transcription factor regulatory elements (TFREs; or transcription factor binding sites) they contained. Based on this, 28 synthetic reporters were constructed that each harbored 7 repeats of a discrete TFRE sequence upstream of a minimal CMV core promoter element and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. After evaluation of the relative activity of TFREs by transient expression in CHO-S cells, we constructed a first generation library of 96 synthetic promoters derived from random ligation of six active TFREs inserted into the same reporter construct backbone. Comparison of the sequence and relative activity of first generation promoters revealed that individual TFRE blocks were either relatively abundant in active promoters (NFκB, E-box), equally distributed across promoters of varying activity (C/EBPα, GC-box) or relatively abundant in low activity promoters (E4F1, CRE). These data were utilized to create a second generation of 44 synthetic promoters based on random ligation of a fixed ratio of 4 TFREs (NFκB 5: E-box 3: C/EBPα 1: GC-box 1). Comparison of the sequence and relative activity of second generation promoters revealed that the most active promoters contained relatively high numbers of both NFκB and E-box TFREs in approximately equal proportion, with a correspondingly low number of GC-box and C/EBPα blocks. The most active second generation promoters achieved approximately twice the activity of a control construct harboring the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Lastly, we evaluated the function of a subset of synthetic promoters exhibiting a broad range of activity in different CHO cell host cell lines (CHO-S, CHO-K1 and CHO-DG44) and across extended fed-batch transient expression in CHO-S cells. In general, the different synthetic promoters both maintained their relative activity and the most active promoters consistently and significantly exceeded the activity of the CMV control promoter. For advanced cell engineering strategies our synthetic promoter libraries offer precise control of recombinant transcriptional activity in CHO cells spanning over two orders of magnitude. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 02/2014; · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comparative genome analyses reveal that organismal complexity scales not with gene number but with gene regulation. Recent efforts indicate that the human genome likely contains hundreds of thousands of enhancers, with a typical gene embedded in a milieu of tens of enhancers. Proliferation of cis-regulatory DNAs is accompanied by increased complexity and functional diversification of transcriptional machineries recognizing distal enhancers and core promoters and by the high-order spatial organization of genetic elements. We review progress in unraveling one of the outstanding mysteries of modern biology: the dynamic communication of remote enhancers with target promoters in the specification of cellular identity.
    Cell 03/2014; 157(1):13-25. · 31.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.
    Biotechnology Letters 04/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from