Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro

HerbalScience Group LLC, 1004 Collier Center Way, Suite 200, Naples, FL 34110, USA.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.55). 09/2009; 70(10):1255-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.06.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A ionization technique in mass spectrometry called Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART TOF-MS) coupled with a Direct Binding Assay was used to identify and characterize anti-viral components of an elderberry fruit (Sambucus nigra L.) extract without either derivatization or separation by standard chromatographic techniques. The elderberry extract inhibited Human Influenza A (H1N1) infection in vitro with an IC(50) value of 252+/-34 microg/mL. The Direct Binding Assay established that flavonoids from the elderberry extract bind to H1N1 virions and, when bound, block the ability of the viruses to infect host cells. Two compounds were identified, 5,7,3',4'-tetra-O-methylquercetin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)chroman-3-yl-3,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylate (2), as H1N1-bound chemical species. Compound 1 and dihydromyricetin (3), the corresponding 3-hydroxyflavonone of 2, were synthesized and shown to inhibit H1N1 infection in vitro by binding to H1N1 virions, blocking host cell entry and/or recognition. Compound 1 gave an IC(50) of 0.13 microg/mL (0.36 microM) for H1N1 infection inhibition, while dihydromyricetin (3) achieved an IC(50) of 2.8 microg/mL (8.7 microM). The H1N1 inhibition activities of the elderberry flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu; 0.32 microM) and Amantadine (27 microM).

Download full-text


Available from: Ryan Cristiano Fink, Sep 28, 2015
106 Reads
  • Source
    • "1.5 g of N. sativa seeds (Frontier Natural Products Co-op, Norway, IA) was homogenized in 10 ml of 85% ethanol and incubated for 7 d at room temperature [46,47]. 32.0 g of S. nigra fruit (San Francisco Herb Company, San Francisco, CA) was homogenized in 40 ml of 80% ethanol and incubated for 4 d at room temperature [48]. Following these incubations, extract solutions were centrifuged at 1900 × g for 5 min at room temperature to remove debris and the remaining supernatant was syringe filtered through a 0.22 μm polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Fisher Scientific Company, Fair Lawn, NJ). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce antimicrobial secondary compounds, which may be a source for novel anti-viral drugs. Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain polyphenol derivatives that inhibit other viruses. Dose-response cytotoxicity curves on Vero cells using trypan blue staining determined the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of each plant extract. To screen for IBV inhibition, cells and virus were pretreated with extracts, followed by infection in the presence of extract. Viral cytopathic effect was assessed visually following an additional 24 h incubation with extract. Cells and supernatants were harvested separately and virus titers were quantified by plaque assay. Variations of this screening protocol determined the effects of a number of shortened S. nigra extract treatments. Finally, S. nigra extract-treated virions were visualized by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining.Virus titers from infected cells treated with R. rosea and N. sativa extracts were not substantially different from infected cells treated with solvent alone. However, treatment with S. nigra extracts reduced virus titers by four orders of magnitude at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 in a dose-responsive manner. Infection at a low MOI reduced viral titers by six orders of magnitude and pretreatment of virus was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extract showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles, which suggested a mechanism of action. These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at an early point in infection, probably by rendering the virus non-infectious. They also suggest that future studies using S. nigra extract to treat or prevent IBV or other coronaviruses are warranted.
    BMC Veterinary Research 01/2014; 10(1):24. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-10-24 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "It is difficult to gauge U.S. commercial interest in S. canadensis fruit, although elderberry dietary supplements are top selling products in Europe and North America [2] [9]. European and American elderberries have purported health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral properties [1] [17] [24], and the pigments offer use as food colorants [5]. In elderberry, anthocyanins are derivatives of cyanidin-glycosides [10] [13] [22] [23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) fruit are used for food and dietary supplements in Europe and North America, and contain large amounts of cyanidin-based anthocyanins and other phenolics that may benefit human health. OBJECTIVES: Information on the effect of both genotype and production environment on elderberry juice characteristics is needed in order to optimize production of quality food and dietary supplements. METHODS: The characteristics of elderberry fruits relative to genetic and production environment were evaluated from 12 American elderberry genotypes at three U.S. sites (two in Missouri and one in Oregon) over three growing seasons. Additional genotypes of American and European elderberry were studied at the Oregon site. RESULTS: Location, genotype, and growing season influenced pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total phenolics, and total anthocyanins. Elderberries grown in Oregon were consistently higher in acidity than those grown in Missouri. Differences in acidity and anthocyanin with environment were dependent on genotype. Non-acylated anthocyanins and flavonol-glycosides were more influenced by location than by genotype. CONCLUSION: 'Bob Gordon' and 'Adams 2' genotypes, which are good producers in diverse environments, were significantly higher in total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in all locations, and may be good selections for producing juices, wines, or health products.
    Journal of Berry Research 11/2013; 3(3):159-168. DOI:10.3233/JBR-130054
  • Source
    • "European and American elderberry's medicinal value has also been recently reviewed by Charlebois (2007). Elderberry is especially popular for its antiviral properties as it is recommended for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza (Roschek et al. 2009; Zakay-Rones et al. 1995, 2004). The literature about elderberry production and marketing in the US is very scarce. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Elderberry, a perennial shrub native to North America with a variety of uses and benefits, is neither well known nor widely utilized as a specialty crop in the US. Up-to-date information is lacking with regard to the elderberry market or market potential. This research identifies the market participants along the value chain, the current status of the industry, direction, future trends, and elderberry market limitations as well as risks and potential opportunities for elderberry producers and processors. A combination of quantitative (mail survey) and qualitative (phone interview) methods have been used. The theoretical model used for the survey and interview development and analysis is based on the Porter Five Forces Model (PFFM) which describes the competitive forces that coordinate and control the market. The PFFM has been used previously to shed light on the chestnut and shiitake mushroom specialty crop markets. Seventy-four mail survey responses and 20 follow-up phone interviews provided information on the market participants, challenges, opportunities and competitive forces in the elderberry industry. Results show a nascent industry with mostly small scale participants poised for growth. Demand trends are favorable and prices are good across the value chain. Challenges include a limited domestic supply of fruit, few regionally adapted varieties suitable for commercial production, and high labor costs. Additionally, the absence of existing mechanical harvesting equipment limits future production potential and industry growth. Respondents identified low levels of competition within the industry at the present time. Based on identified market size and demand, opportunities exist to increase the domestic elderberry industry across the value chain.
    Agroforestry Systems 11/2012; 86(3). DOI:10.1007/s10457-012-9546-0 · 1.22 Impact Factor
Show more