Cigarette smoking and serum soluble Fas levels: Findings from the JACC study
ABSTRACT Cigarette smoking enhances low-grade systemic inflammation in the lung and other organs. Activated immune cells play an important role at early and late stages of inflammation, and in recent years, soluble Fas (sFas), an isoform of death molecule Fas, was found to interfere with the apoptotic pathways of these activated immune cells. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between cigarette smoking and sFas levels in healthy male subjects. We measured serum sFas levels of 4415 male subjects selected as controls for a nested case-control study within the large-scale cohort study conducted in Japan, called the JACC Study. Smoking status at baseline was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. Least square means of sFas according to smoking status and numbers of cigarettes smoked per day among smokers were calculated and adjusted for possible confounding factors. Mean sFas levels showed an increasing trend across never smokers, past smokers and current smokers, as 2.21 (95% CI: 2.14-2.27) ng/ml, 2.29 (2.22-2.36) ng/ml, and 2.36 (2.30-2.43) ng/ml, respectively. However, no dose-response relationship was observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and sFas levels among smokers.
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ABSTRACT: Markers of apoptosis are associated with cardiovascular disease. The soluble apoptosis-stimulating fragment (sFAS) was found to be a predictor for outcome in patients with heart failure, but its importance in patients with atherosclerotic disease has not been fully understood as yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of sFAS on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. We studied 981 of 1286 consecutive patients with neurological asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis as evaluated by duplex Doppler sonography. Patients were prospectively followed for long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. During a median follow-up of 6.2 years (interquartile range, 5.9 to 6.6 years), a total of 250 deaths (25.5%), including 165 (66%) cardiovascular deaths, were recorded. The risk for all-cause and for cardiovascular mortality, respectively, increased significantly with sFAS concentrations (P<0.001). The hazard ratio for all-cause death was elevated by 2.3-fold (P<0.001) and for cardiovascular death by 2.4-fold (P<0.001) in patients within the highest quintile of sFAS compared with patients within the lowest quintile, respectively. Results remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders and established cardiovascular risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Patients with high sFAS but low high-sensitivity C-reactive protein had a comparable survival rate with those with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein only (P=0.50). Markers of apoptosis, as measured by sFAS, were found to be independent risk predictors for death in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the carotid arteries.Stroke 07/2011; 42(9):2465-70. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.611301 · 5.72 Impact Factor