Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit joint health in osteoarthritis patients: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
ABSTRACT The objective of this clinical study was to assess the potential benefit of a dietary supplement, NP 06-1, on joint health in overweight and normal weight adults diagnosed with osteoarthritis.
An 8-week placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted with four groups comparing the effects of NP 06-1 to placebo on overweight and normal weight subjects diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. NP 06-1 (a combination of two botanical extracts; Phellodendron amurense bark and Citrus sinensis peel) or matching placebo were given in a dose of two capsules (370 mg each) twice daily. The outcome measures were the Lequesne Algofunctional Index (LAI) for joint pain and movement as well as biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]).
Eighty (80) subjects were enrolled and 45 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were reported. The mean total LAI scores at baseline for the four groups ranged from 11.4 to 12.4 (SD 1.2 to 2.4). Treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a statistical improvement in the LAI score in the overweight treatment group compared to placebo (6.3 +/- 2.3 vs 11.8 +/- 1.5; p < 0.0001). At 8 weeks, a similar result was observed in the normal weight groups (7.7 +/- 1.4 vs 9.9 +/- 0.9; p < 0.0001). There was a reduction in CRP levels with treatment in the overweight treatment group at 8 weeks (-0.62 +/- 0.2; 49%) compared to baseline (p < 0.001) and to placebo (p < 0.001). For the normal weight participants, there were significant reductions in CRP compared to baseline, but not to the matched placebo group. Both overweight and normal weight treatment groups lost a significant amount of weight compared to their placebo groups. The overweight treatment group lost an average of 5% body weight after 8 weeks. There was no significant change in ESR in any of the groups.
In this pilot study, NP 06-1 had beneficial effects on symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee as measured using LAI scores and had anti-inflammatory effects as measured using CRP. Administration of NP 06-1 was also associated with weight loss, which may have been a contributing factor to the other benefits.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Julius Oben, Jul 05, 2015
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ABSTRACT: A total of 96 plant species belonging to 84 genera and 46 families were documented and identified as anti-infective herbal remedies in Northern Peru. Most species used were Asteraceae (18 species, 18.95%), followed by Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae (7.37% and 5.26%). The most important anti-infectious families are somewhat over-represented in comparison to the overall medicinal flora, while some other medicinally important families (e.g. Lycopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae) are completely missing from the anti-infective portfolio. The majority of herbal preparations were prepared from the leaves of plants (31.34%), while the whole plant (18.66%), flowers (12.69%) and stems (17.16%) were used less frequently. In almost 67% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies. Only about 55% of the remedies were applied orally, while the remaining ones were applied topically. Over half of all remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies against infectious disease agents might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. However, more detailed scientific studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the remedies employed traditionally.Journal of medicinal plant research 05/2011; 5:1297-1304. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease and is a major cause of pain and physical disability among the elderly. Although, numerous treatments have been developed to treat osteoarthritis, no definitive treatments with high efficacy and low risk have been identified until now. In recent years, it has been reported that nutraceuticals may be good candidates for the management of knee osteoarthritis. This paper describes the efficacy of nutraceuticals for treating knee osteoarthritis in terms of pain and structural change. To accomplish this, this paper reports on the analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials that were published prior to December 2011.
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ABSTRACT: Traditional medicine has been widely using Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae) to treat various inflammatory diseases including arthritis. This study investigated the effects of Phellodendron amurense in protecting cartilage, including regulating the levels of aggrecanases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), proinflammatory cytokines and signaling of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in human osteoarticular cartilage and chondrocytes. Explants from human osteoarthritis cartilage were cultured alone or in IL-1α for 7 days with or without Phellodendron amurense ethanol extract or celecoxib (40, 100, 200μg/ml). The effect of Phellodendron amurense on matrix degradation induced by IL-1α in human articular cartilage was assessed by staining, and the quantities of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen were calculated from the culture media. The levels of aggrecanases, MMPs, TIMP, and PGE(2) in the culture media were investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluated the mRNA expression of aggrecanases, MMPs and TIMP. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was performed to identify the roles that Phellodendron amurense played in the ERK, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Phellodendron amurense showed no evident cytotoxicity on human articular cartilage. Phellodendron amurense significantly inhibited the IL-1α-induced degradation of GAG and type II collagen from human osteoarticular cartilage in a concentration-dependent manner. Celecoxib did not significantly inhibit IL-1α-induced release of GAG and only slightly reduced type II collagen. Phellodendron amurense also dose-dependently decreased the levels of aggrecanase-1 and -2, MMP-1, -3, and -13, whereas it increased TIMP-1 expression in human osteoarticular cartilage. Celecoxib only decreased MMP-1 and MMP-13 levels in human osteoarticular cartilage. In addition, Phellodendron amurense reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and activated phospho-p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Phellodendron amurense inhibited osteoarticular cartilage and chondrocyte destruction by inhibiting proteoglycan release and type II collagen degradation, down-regulating aggrecanases, MMP activities and phospho-ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinase signaling, and up-regulating TIMP-1 activity. Therefore, our results suggest that Phellodendron amurense is a potential therapeutic agent to protect cartilage against OA progression.Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2010; 134(2):234-42. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.005 · 2.94 Impact Factor