Inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway enhances proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of kidney cancer cells by suppression of BAG3 expression.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.
British Journal of Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.07). 09/2009; 158(5):1405-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00455.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Proteasome inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-tumour agents that have clinical efficacy against haematological and solid cancers. The anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 is a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene family. We have previously shown that BAG3 is up-regulated after exposure to proteasome inhibitors and that inhibition of BAG3 sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition. However, the mechanisms by which proteasome inhibition induced BAG3 expression remained unclear and the present experiments were designed to elucidate these mechanisms.
Effects of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 on activation of mitogenic signalling pathways were evaluated in kidney cancer cells (A498, Caki1, Caki2), with Western blotting. Specific inhibitors against individual mitogenic signalling pathways, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and luciferase reporter assays were used to investigate the roles of mitogenic signalling pathways in BAG3 induction after proteasome inhibition. Cell death was evaluated using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and subsequent FACS.
MG132 activated several key mitogenic signalling pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities. Induction of BAG3 by MG132 was inhibited by blocking JNK, but not ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signalling pathways. In addition, SP600125 and dominant-negative JNK1 suppressed BAG3 promoter-driven reporter gene expression. Furthermore, activation of the JNK pathway induced BAG in kidney cancer cells after treatment with MG132.
Our results suggested that the JNK pathway was associated with the protective response against proteasome inhibition, by mediating induction of BAG3.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of HSP70, is a cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic protein that acts against various stresses, including heat stress. Here, we examined the effect of BAG3 on the sensitivity of human retinoblastoma cells to hyperthermia (HT). We examined the effects of BAG3 knockdown on the sensitivity of Y79 and WERI-Rb-1cells to HT (44 °C, 1 h) by evaluating apoptosis and cell proliferation using western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), flow cytometry, and a WST-8 assay kit. Furthermore, we examined the effects of activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) using western blotting and real time qPCR. HT induced considerable apoptosis along with the activation of caspase-3 and chromatin condensation. The sensitivity of Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells to HT was significantly enhanced by BAG3 knockdown. Compared to HT alone, the combination of BAG3 knockdown and HT reduced phosphorylation of the inhibitors of kappa B α (IκBα) and p65, a subunit of NF-κB, and degraded IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) during the recovery period after HT. Furthermore, BAG3 knockdown increased the HT-induced phosphorylation of ERK after HT treatment, and the ERK inhibitor U0126 significantly improved the viability of the cells treated with a combination of BAG3 knockdown and HT. The silencing of BAG3 seems to enhance the effects of HT, at least in part, by maintaining HT-induced inactivity of NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK. These findings indicate that BAG3 may be a potential molecular target for modifying the outcomes of HT in retinoblastoma.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00417-014-2874-1 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) plays a very important role in the degradation of proteins. Finding novel UPP inhibitors is a promising strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM). Ub-YFP reporter assays were used as cellular UPP models. MM cell growth, apoptosis and overall death were evaluated with the MTS assay, Annexin V/PI dual-staining flow cytometry, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and PI uptake, respectively. The mechanism of UPP inhibition was analyzed by western blotting for ubiquitin, in vitro and cellular proteasomal and deubiquitinases (DUBs) activity assays. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured with H2DCFDA. Curcusone D, identified as a novel UPP inhibitor, causes cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in MM cells. Curcusone D induced the accumulation of poly-ubiquitin-conjugated proteins but could not inhibit proteasomal activity in vitro or in cells. Interestingly, the mono-ubiquitin level and the total cellular DUB activity were significantly downregulated following curcusone D treatment. Furthermore, curcusone D could induce ROS, which were closely correlated with DUB inhibition that could be nearly completely reversed by NAC. Finally, curcusone D and the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib showed a strong synergistic effect against MM cells. Curcusone D is novel UPP inhibitor that acts via the ROS-induced inhibition of DUBs to produce strong growth inhibition and apoptosis of MM cells and synergize with bortezomib. The anti-MM molecular mechanism study of curcusone D will promote combination therapies with different UPP inhibitors against MM and further support the concept of oxidative stress regulating the activity of DUBs.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 06/2014; 1840(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.02.006 · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tau is a microtubule associated protein that is found primarily in neurons, and in pathologic conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) it accumulates and contributes to the disease process. Because tau plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of AD and other tauopathies, and in AD mouse models reducing tau levels improves outcomes, approaches that facilitate tau clearance are being considered as therapeutic strategies. However, fundamental to the development of such interventions is a clearer understanding of the mechanisms that regulate tau clearance. Here, we report a novel mechanism of tau degradation mediated by the co-chaperone BAG3. BAG3 has been shown to be an essential component of a complex that targets substrates to the autophagy pathway for degradation. In rat primary neurons, activation of autophagy by inhibition of proteasome activity or treatment with trehalose resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels. These treatments also induced an upregulation of BAG3. Proteasome inhibition activated JNK, which was responsible for the upregulation of BAG3 and increased tau clearance. Inhibiting JNK or knocking down BAG3 blocked the proteasome inhibition-induced decreases in tau. Further, BAG3 overexpression alone resulted in significant decreases in tau and phospho-tau levels in neurons. These results indicate that BAG3 plays a critical role in regulating the levels of tau in neurons, and interventions that increase BAG3 levels could provide a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD.
    Neurobiology of Aging 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.08.012 · 4.85 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from
Feb 7, 2015