The Neuropsychology of Schizophrenia Circa 2009

Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Psychology, College of Letters and Science, and Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA, .
Neuropsychology Review (Impact Factor: 4.59). 09/2009; 19(3):277-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11065-009-9112-3
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    • "This paper will examine the evidence and potential for neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions in addressing the issue of functional recovery in early psychosis. With the impetus that cognitive deficits are at the core of schizophrenia [12], this paper will only include interventions that have a neurocognitive or social cognitive target; thus, interventions that focus primarily on changing behaviour, such as social skills training (SST) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), will not be addressed here (for review of other interventions see [13]). For this review, the term " neurocognition " will be used to refer to elementary cognitive abilities (e.g., memory, attention, etc.) and remediation/therapies that are neurocognitive based. "
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    ABSTRACT: Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed.
    04/2012; 2012(33):815315. DOI:10.1155/2012/815315
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    ABSTRACT: Light penetration of laser in tissue is important for dosimetry of photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this report, depth dependence of laser under uniform light irradiation with λ (532, 630, 730 nm) was measured in intralipid, a relatively pure scattering medium. A 0.3-mm diameter isotropic detector with scattering tip was used to measure the light fluence rate. The optical penetration depth δ for the uniform light irradiation is defined as the depth where light fluence rate drops to 1/e of that at surface. Various concentrations between 1-15% were used to change effective absorption coefficient μ<sub>eff </sub>. Measurement was made of the radial light fluence rate around a point source with known radiant power P. The result is then fitted to a diffusion model to determine μ<sub>eff</sub>. For the uniform light irradiation, δ are 1.06, 1.24 and 0.88 cm for 532, 630 and 730 nm, respectively, in 10% intralipid. They increase with decreasing concentration of intralipid. For 15% intralipid the optical penetration for 730 nm light is longer than that for 532 nm. This trend follows that 1/μ<sub>eff</sub> which are 0.66, 0.93 and 0.55 cm for 532, 630 and 730 nm. The authors did not observe any buildup in the surface region. The most interesting finding is that the optical penetration for 730 nm laser light is shorter than that of 532 and 630 nm laser in intralipid. This is not true in tissue where the optical penetration for 730 nm light is longer
    Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2000. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE; 02/2000
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairments are central to schizophrenia and could mark underlying biological dysfunction but efforts to detect genetic associations for schizophrenia or cognitive phenotypes have been disappointing. Phenomics strategies emphasizing simultaneous study of multiple phenotypes across biological scales might help, particularly if the high heritabilities of schizophrenia and cognitive impairments are due to large numbers of genetic variants with small effect. Convergent evidence is reviewed, and a new collaborative knowledgebase - CogGene - is introduced to share data about genetic associations with cognitive phenotypes, and enable users to meta-analyze results interactively. CogGene data demonstrate the need for larger studies with broader representation of cognitive phenotypes. Given that meta-analyses will probably be necessary to detect the small association signals linking the genome and cognitive phenotypes, CogGene or similar applications will be needed to enable collaborative knowledge aggregation and specify true effects.
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 08/2011; 15(9):428-35. DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2011.07.002 · 21.97 Impact Factor
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